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Dictionary :: Letter D


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DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) is a type of DOS attack where multiple compromised systems, which are often infected with a Trojan, are used to target a single system causing a Denial of Service (DoS) attack. Victims of a DDoS attack consist of both the end targeted system and all systems maliciously used and controlled by the hacker in the distributed attack.

In a DDoS attack, the incoming traffic flooding the victim originates from many different sources: potentially hundreds of thousands or more. This effectively makes it impossible to stop the attack simply by blocking a single IP address; plus, it is very difficult to distinguish legitimate user traffic from attack traffic when spread across so many points of origin.

Last Revised: 2015-11-01

Dictionary Attack

In cryptanalysis and computer security, a dictionary attack is a technique for defeating a cipher or authentication mechanism by trying to determine its decryption key or passphrase by trying likely possibilities, such as words in a dictionary.

A dictionary attack uses a targeted technique of successively trying all the words in an exhaustive list called a dictionary (from a pre-arranged list of values). In contrast with a brute force attack, where a large proportion key space is searched systematically, a dictionary attack tries only those possibilities which are most likely to succeed, typically derived from a list of words for example a dictionary (hence the phrase dictionary attack). Generally, dictionary attacks succeed because many people have a tendency to choose passwords which are short (7 characters or fewer), single words found in dictionaries or simple, easily predicted variations on words, such as appending a digit. However these are easy to defeat. Adding a single random character in the middle can make dictionary attacks untenable.

Last Revised: 2015-07-01


Dig refers to digging queries DNS nameservers for information about host addresses, mail exchanges, nameservers, and related information.

Last Revised: 2015-09-05


Digitize refers to translating data into a digital form. For example, optical scanners digitize images by translating them into bit maps. It is also possible to digitize sound, video, and any type of movement. In all these cases, digitization is performed by sampling at discrete intervals. To digitize sound, for example, a device measures a sound wave's amplitude many times per second. These numeric values can then be recorded digitally.

Last Revised: 2015-11-01


The Domain Name System (DNS) helps users find their way around the Internet. Every computer on the Internet has a unique address - just like a telephone number - which is a rather complicated string of numbers. It is called its "IP address" (IP stands for "Internet Protocol"). IP Addresses are hard to remember. The DNS makes using the Internet easier by allowing a familiar string of letters (the "domain name") to be used instead of the arcane IP address. So instead of typing, you can type It is a "mnemonic" device that makes addresses easier to remember.

Last Revised: 2015-10-03

Domain Name

Domain names are used to identify one or more IP addresses. For example, the domain name,, represents about a dozen IP addresses. Domain names are used in URLs to identify particular webpages. For example, in the URL, the domain name is

Every domain name has a suffix that indicates which top level domain (TLD) it belongs to. There are only a limited number of such domains. For example:

gov - Government agencies
edu - Educational institutions
org - Organizations (nonprofit)
mil - Military
com - commercial business
net - Network organizations
ca - Canada

In the case of, the TLD is com.

Because the Internet is based on IP addresses, not domain names, every Web server requires a Domain Name System (DNS) server to translate domain names into IP addresses.

Last Revised: 2015-09-07


DoS (Denial of Service) attack is different from a DDoS attack. The DoS attack typically uses one computer and one Internet connection to flood a targeted system or resource.

Last Revised: 2015-11-01


A Microsoft operating system platform that incorporates applications, a suite of tools and services and a change in the infrastructure of the company's Web strategy. The .NET Framework supports building and running of next generation of applications and XML Web services.

Last Revised: 2015-11-01


DPI (dots per inch) indicates the resolution of images. The more dots per inch, the higher the resolution. A common resolution for laser printers is 600 dots per inch. This means 600 dots across and 600 dots down, so there are 360,000 dots per square inch.

Last Revised: 2015-11-01


Drupal is free, open source content management system (CMS) software that can be used by individuals or groups of users (even those lacking technical skills) to easily create and manage many types of websites. The application includes a content management platform and a development framework.

Last Revised: 2015-10-15


A digital subscriber line (DSL) modem is a device used to connect a computer or router to a telephone line which provides the digital subscriber line service for connectivity to the Internet, which is often called DSL broadband.

Last Revised: 2015-09-19

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