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RAID

RAID (originally redundant array of inexpensive disks, now commonly redundant array of independent disks) is a data storage virtualization technology that combines multiple physical disk drive components into a single logical unit for the purposes of data redundancy, performance improvement, or both.

RAID storage uses multiple disks in order to provide fault tolerance, to improve overall performance, and to increase storage capacity in a system. This is in contrast with older storage devices that used only a single disk drive to store data.

RAID allows you to store the same data redundantly (in multiple spaces) in a balanced way to improve overall performance.

Last Revised: 2015-09-12

RAM

RAM (Random Access Memory) is a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly; that is, any byte of memory can be accessed without touching the preceding bytes. RAM is the most common type of memory found in computers and other devices, such as printers. There are two types of RAM:

DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory)
SRAM (Static Random Access Memory)

The two types of RAM differ in the technology they use to hold data, with DRAM being the more common type. In terms of speed, SRAM is faster. DRAM needs to be refreshed thousands of times per second while SRAM does not need to be refreshed, which is what makes it faster than DRAM.

Last Revised: 2015-09-25

Redhat

Red Hat, Inc. is an American multinational software company providing open-source software products to the enterprise community. Founded in 1993, Red Hat has its corporate headquarters in Raleigh, North Carolina, with satellite offices worldwide.

Red Hat has become associated to a large extent with its enterprise operating system Red Hat Enterprise Linux and with the acquisition of open-source enterprise middleware vendor JBoss. Red Hat also offers Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization (RHEV), an enterprise virtualization product. Red Hat provides storage, operating system platforms, middleware, applications, management products, and support, training, and consulting services.

Red Hat creates, maintains, and contributes to many free software projects. It has acquired several proprietary software product codebases through corporate mergers and acquisitions and has released such software under open source licenses. As of June 2013, Red Hat is the largest corporate contributor to Linux.

Last Revised: 2015-08-28

Resolve IP

Resolve IP resolves IP address to host name.

Last Revised: 2015-09-02

Reverse DNS Lookup

Reverse DNS Lookup is the determination of a domain name that is associated with a given IP address using the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet.

Last Revised: 2015-09-03

ROM

ROM (Read-Only Memory) is computer memory on which data has been prerecorded. Once data has been written onto a ROM chip, it cannot be removed and can only be read.

Unlike main memory (RAM), ROM retains its contents even when the computer is turned off. ROM is referred to as being nonvolatile, whereas RAM is volatile.

Most personal computers contain a small amount of ROM that stores critical programs such as the program that boots the computer.

Last Revised: 2015-09-25

Rootkit

A rootkit is a collection of computer software, typically malicious, designed to enable access to a computer or areas of its software that would not otherwise be allowed (for example, to an unauthorized user) while at the same time masking its existence or the existence of other software.

Last Revised: 2015-08-25

Router

A router is a device that forwards data packets along networks. A router is connected to at least two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP's network. Routers are located at gateways, the places where two or more networks connect.

Last Revised: 2015-09-15

Ruby

Ruby is a dynamic, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language.

Last Revised: 2015-09-12

Ruby on Rails

Rails is a software library that extends the Ruby programming language. It is software code that is added to the Ruby programming language. Technically, it is a package library (specifically, a RubyGem), that is installed using the operating system command-line interface.

Rails is a framework for building websites. As such, Rails establishes conventions for easier collaboration and maintenance. These conventions are codified as the Rails API (the application programming interface, or directives that control the code). The Rails API is documented online and described in books, articles, and blog posts. Learning Rails means learning how to use the Rails conventions and its API.

Rails combines the Ruby programming language with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript to create a web application that runs on a web server. Because it runs on a web server, Rails is considered a server-side, or "backend," web application development platform (the web browser is the "frontend"). Later, this article will describe web applications in greater depth and show why a web development framework is needed to build complex websites.

Last Revised: 2015-09-12

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