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Dictionary :: Letter S


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Search Engine Robot

Web Robots (also known as Web Wanderers, Crawlers, or Spiders), are programs that traverse the Web automatically. Search engines such as Google use them to index the web content, spammers use them to scan for email addresses, and they have many other uses.

Last Revised: 2015-09-07


A web server is a computer connected to a network (web host) that offers some service to users, such as file storage. In terms of websites, the server your site is stored on is a computer permanently connected to the Internet that you upload your website files to. The server will then send your webpages and other files to visitors as they connect to your site.

Last Revised: 2015-07-01


A session can be defined as a server-side storage of information that is desired to persist throughout the user's interaction with the website or web application.

Instead of storing large and constantly changing information via cookies in the user's browser, only a unique identifier is stored on the client side (called a "session id"). This session id is passed to the web server every time the browser makes an HTTP request (i.e., a page link or AJAX request). The web application pairs this session id with it's internal database and retrieves the stored variables for use by the requested page.

Last Revised: 2015-08-29


SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) or the SSH File Transfer Protocol is a network protocol that provides file access, file transfer, and file management over any reliable data stream. SFTP is as an extension of the Secure Shell protocol (SSH) to provide secure file transfer functionality.

Last Revised: 2015-09-13


Short Message Service (SMS) is a text messaging service component of phone, Web, or mobile communication systems. It uses standardized communication protocols to allow fixed line or mobile phone devices to exchange short text messages.

Last Revised: 2015-09-22


SOAP, originally an acronym for Simple Object Access Protocol, is a protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of web services in computer networks. It uses XML Information Set for its message format, and relies on other application layer protocols, most notably Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), for message negotiation and transmission.

Last Revised: 2015-08-25


Spam is most often considered to be unsolicited junk email. Spam is generally email advertising.

In addition to wasting people's time with unwanted email, spam also eats up a lot of network bandwidth. Consequently, there are many organizations, as well as individuals, who have taken it upon themselves to fight spam with a variety of techniques. But because the Internet is public, there is really little that can be done to prevent spam, just as it is impossible to prevent junk mail. However, some online services have instituted policies to prevent spammers from spamming their subscribers.

Last Revised: 2015-08-25


Secure Shell, or SSH, is a cryptographic (encrypted) network protocol for initiating text-based shell sessions on remote machines in a secure way.

This allows a user to run commands on a machine's command prompt without them being physically present near the machine. It also allows a user to establish a secure channel over an insecure network in a client-server architecture, connecting an SSH client application with an SSH server. Common applications include remote command-line login and remote command execution, but any network service can be secured with SSH. The protocol specification distinguishes between two major versions, referred to as SSH-1 and SSH-2.

The most visible application of the protocol is for access to shell accounts on Unix-like operating systems, but it can also be used in a similar fashion on Windows.

SSH was designed as a replacement for Telnet and other insecure remote shell protocols such as the Berkeley rsh and rexec protocols, which send information, notably passwords, in plaintext, rendering them susceptible to interception and disclosure using packet analysis. The encryption used by SSH is intended to provide confidentiality and integrity of data over an unsecured network, such as the Internet.

A common SSH client app is SecureCRT.

Last Revised: 2015-07-01


Server Side Includes (SSI) is a simple interpreted server-side scripting language used almost exclusively for the Web.

The most frequent use of SSI is to include the contents of one or more files into a webpage on a web server. For example, a web page containing a daily quotation could include the quotation by placing the following code into the file of the web page:

<!--#include virtual="../quote.txt" -->

Last Revised: 2015-10-08


SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is a standard security technology for establishing an encrypted link between a server and a client-typically a web server (website) and a browser; or a mail server and a mail client (e.g., Outlook).

SSL allows sensitive information such as credit card numbers, social security numbers, and login credentials to be transmitted securely. Normally, data sent between browsers and web servers is sent in plain text-leaving you vulnerable to eavesdropping. If an attacker is able to intercept all data being sent between a browser and a web server they can see and use that information.

More specifically, SSL is a security protocol. Protocols describe how algorithms should be used; in this case, the SSL protocol determines variables of the encryption for both the link and the data being transmitted.

SSL secures millions of peoples' data on the Internet every day, especially during online transactions or when transmitting confidential information. Internet users have come to associate their online security with the lock icon that comes with an SSL-secured website or green address bar that comes with an extended validation SSL-secured website. SSL-secured websites also begin with https rather than http.

Last Revised: 2015-07-01

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