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Unix Manual [tail]

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						TAIL(1)				 User Commands			       TAIL(1)

       tail - output the last part of files

       tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...

       Print  the  last	 10  lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more
       than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file  name.	  With
       no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

       Mandatory  arguments  to	 long  options are mandatory for short options

       -c, --bytes=K
	      output the last K bytes; or use -c +K to output  bytes  starting
	      with the Kth of each file

       -f, --follow[={name|descriptor}]
	      output appended data as the file grows;

	      an absent option argument means 'descriptor'

       -F     same as --follow=name --retry

       -n, --lines=K
	      output the last K lines, instead of the last 10; or use -n +K to
	      output starting with the Kth

	      with --follow=name, reopen a FILE which has not

	      changed size after N (default 5) iterations to  see  if  it  has
	      been  unlinked or renamed (this is the usual case of rotated log
	      files); with inotify, this option is rarely useful

	      with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies

       -q, --quiet, --silent
	      never output headers giving file names

	      keep trying to open a file if it is inaccessible

       -s, --sleep-interval=N
	      with -f, sleep for approximately N seconds (default 1.0) between
	      iterations;  with	 inotify and --pid=P, check process P at least
	      once every N seconds

       -v, --verbose
	      always output headers giving file names

       --help display this help and exit

	      output version information and exit

       If the first character of K (the number of bytes or lines)  is  a  '+',
       print  beginning	 with the Kth item from the start of each file, other-
       wise, print the last K items in the file.  K may have a multiplier suf-
       fix:   b	  512,	kB  1000,  K  1024,  MB	 1000*1000,  M	1024*1024,  GB
       1000*1000*1000, G 1024*1024*1024, and so on for T, P, E, Z, Y.

       With --follow (-f), tail defaults to  following	the  file  descriptor,
       which  means that even if a tail'ed file is renamed, tail will continue
       to track its end.  This default behavior	 is  not  desirable  when  you
       really want to track the actual name of the file, not the file descrip-
       tor (e.g., log rotation).  Use --follow=name in that case.  That causes
       tail  to	 track	the  named  file  in a way that accommodates renaming,
       removal and creation.

       GNU  coreutils  online  help:  <>
       Report tail translation bugs to <>

       Written	by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, Ian Lance Taylor, and Jim Mey-

       Copyright (C) 2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+:  GNU
       GPL version 3 or later <>.
       This  is	 free  software:  you  are free to change and redistribute it.
       There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

       The full documentation for tail is maintained as a Texinfo manual.   If
       the  info  and  tail  programs are properly installed at your site, the

	      info coreutils 'tail invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.

GNU coreutils 8.22		 November 2020			       TAIL(1)