TAIL(1) User Commands TAIL(1)
tail - output the last part of files
tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...
Print the last 10 lines of each FILE to standard output. With more
than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name. With
no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.
Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options
output the last K bytes; or use -c +K to output bytes starting
with the Kth of each file
output appended data as the file grows;
an absent option argument means 'descriptor'
-F same as --follow=name --retry
output the last K lines, instead of the last 10; or use -n +K to
output starting with the Kth
with --follow=name, reopen a FILE which has not
changed size after N (default 5) iterations to see if it has
been unlinked or renamed (this is the usual case of rotated log
files); with inotify, this option is rarely useful
with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies
-q, --quiet, --silent
never output headers giving file names
keep trying to open a file if it is inaccessible
with -f, sleep for approximately N seconds (default 1.0) between
iterations; with inotify and --pid=P, check process P at least
once every N seconds
always output headers giving file names
--help display this help and exit
output version information and exit
If the first character of K (the number of bytes or lines) is a '+',
print beginning with the Kth item from the start of each file, other-
wise, print the last K items in the file. K may have a multiplier suf-
fix: b 512, kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, GB
1000*1000*1000, G 1024*1024*1024, and so on for T, P, E, Z, Y.
With --follow (-f), tail defaults to following the file descriptor,
which means that even if a tail'ed file is renamed, tail will continue
to track its end. This default behavior is not desirable when you
really want to track the actual name of the file, not the file descrip-
tor (e.g., log rotation). Use --follow=name in that case. That causes
tail to track the named file in a way that accommodates renaming,
removal and creation.
GNU coreutils online help: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
Report tail translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>
Written by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, Ian Lance Taylor, and Jim Mey-
Copyright (C) 2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU
GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
The full documentation for tail is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If
the info and tail programs are properly installed at your site, the
info coreutils 'tail invocation'
should give you access to the complete manual.
GNU coreutils 8.22 November 2020 TAIL(1)