Please wait while we load your page...
 

Announcements

Unix Manual

More Tools. . .

Use this tool to explore Unix commands and features.

We provide this tool for FREE! However, we would greatly appreciate your support so we can continue to develop more tools (online tools and downloadable tools). You can show your support by sharing / liking this tool on Facebook. You can also tweet this page to your Twitter followers and following us on Twitter.







UNIX Manual | Commands
							DD(1)				 User Commands				 DD(1)

NAME
       dd - convert and copy a file

SYNOPSIS
       dd [OPERAND]...
       dd OPTION

DESCRIPTION
       Copy a file, converting and formatting according to the operands.

       bs=BYTES
	      read and write BYTES bytes at a time (also see ibs=,obs=)

       cbs=BYTES
	      convert BYTES bytes at a time

       conv=CONVS
	      convert the file as per the comma separated symbol list

       count=N
	      copy only N input blocks

       ibs=BYTES
	      read BYTES bytes at a time (default: 512)

       if=FILE
	      read from FILE instead of stdin

       iflag=FLAGS
	      read as per the comma separated symbol list

       obs=BYTES
	      write BYTES bytes at a time (default: 512)

       of=FILE
	      write to FILE instead of stdout

       oflag=FLAGS
	      write as per the comma separated symbol list

       seek=BLOCKS
	      skip BLOCKS obs-sized blocks at start of output

       skip=BLOCKS
	      skip BLOCKS ibs-sized blocks at start of input

       status=WHICH
	      WHICH info to suppress outputting to stderr; 'noxfer' suppresses
	      transfer stats, 'none' suppresses all

       BLOCKS and BYTES may be followed by the following  multiplicative  suf-
       fixes:  c  =1,  w  =2,  b  =512,	 kB  =1000,  K =1024, MB =1000*1000, M
       =1024*1024, xM =M GB =1000*1000*1000, G =1024*1024*1024, and so on  for
       T, P, E, Z, Y.

       Each CONV symbol may be:

       ascii  from EBCDIC to ASCII

       ebcdic from ASCII to EBCDIC

       ibm    from ASCII to alternate EBCDIC

       block  pad newline-terminated records with spaces to cbs-size

       unblock
	      replace trailing spaces in cbs-size records with newline

       lcase  change upper case to lower case

       nocreat
	      do not create the output file

       excl   fail if the output file already exists

       notrunc
	      do not truncate the output file

       ucase  change lower case to upper case

       sparse try to seek rather than write the output for NUL input blocks

       swab   swap every pair of input bytes

       noerror
	      continue after read errors

       sync   pad  every  input	 block	with  NULs to ibs-size; when used with
	      block or unblock, pad with spaces rather than NULs

       fdatasync
	      physically write output file data before finishing

       fsync  likewise, but also write metadata

       Each FLAG symbol may be:

       append append mode (makes sense	only  for  output;  conv=notrunc  sug-
	      gested)

       direct use direct I/O for data

       directory
	      fail unless a directory

       dsync  use synchronized I/O for data

       sync   likewise, but also for metadata

       fullblock
	      accumulate full blocks of input (iflag only)

       nonblock
	      use non-blocking I/O

       noatime
	      do not update access time

       noctty do not assign controlling terminal from file

       nofollow
	      do not follow symlinks

       count_bytes
	      treat 'count=N' as a byte count (iflag only)

       Sending	a  USR1	 signal	 to  a running 'dd' process makes it print I/O
       statistics to standard error and then resume copying.

	      $ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/null& pid=$!
	      $ kill -USR1 $pid; sleep 1; kill $pid

	      18335302+0 records in 18335302+0 records	out  9387674624	 bytes
	      (9.4 GB) copied, 34.6279 seconds, 271 MB/s

       Options are:

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
	      output version information and exit

AUTHOR
       Written by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, and Stuart Kemp.

REPORTING BUGS
       Report dd bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
       GNU coreutils home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
       General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>
       Report dd translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright  (C)  2010  Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU
       GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
       This is free software: you are free  to	change	and  redistribute  it.
       There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO
       The  full  documentation	 for dd is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
       the info and dd programs are properly installed at your site, the  com-
       mand

	      info coreutils 'dd invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.

GNU coreutils 8.4		   May 2016				 DD(1)							
Live Chat Not Available