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UNIX Manual | Commands
							LS(1)				 User Commands				 LS(1)

       ls - list directory contents

       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

       List  information  about	 the FILEs (the current directory by default).
       Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are	mandatory  for	short  options

       -a, --all
	      do not ignore entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
	      do not list implied . and ..

	      with -l, print the author of each file

       -b, --escape
	      print octal escapes for nongraphic characters

	      use SIZE-byte blocks.  See SIZE format below

       -B, --ignore-backups
	      do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
	      file status information) with -l: show ctime and	sort  by  name
	      otherwise: sort by ctime

       -C     list entries by columns

	      colorize	the  output.   WHEN  defaults  to  'always'  or can be
	      'never' or 'auto'.  More info below

       -d, --directory
	      list directory entries instead of contents, and do not  derefer-
	      ence symbolic links

       -D, --dired
	      generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

       -F, --classify
	      append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

	      likewise, except do not append '*'

	      across  -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1,
	      verbose -l, vertical -C

	      like -l --time-style=full-iso

       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

	      group directories before files.

	      augment with a --sort option, but any use	 of  --sort=none  (-U)
	      disables grouping

       -G, --no-group
	      in a long listing, don't print group names

       -h, --human-readable
	      with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

       --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
	      follow symbolic links listed on the command line

	      follow each command line symbolic link that points to  a	direc-

	      do  not  list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden
	      by -a or -A)

	      append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default),
	      slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

       -i, --inode
	      print the index number of each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
	      do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k     like --block-size=1K

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
	      when showing file information for a symbolic link, show informa-
	      tion for the file the link references rather than for  the  link

       -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
	      like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

       -N, --literal
	      print  raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters spe-

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --indicator-style=slash
	      append / indicator to directories

       -q, --hide-control-chars
	      print ? instead of non graphic characters

	      show non graphic characters as-is	 (default  unless  program  is
	      'ls' and output is a terminal)

       -Q, --quote-name
	      enclose entry names in double quotes

	      use  quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell,
	      shell-always, c, escape

       -r, --reverse
	      reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
	      list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
	      print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

       -S     sort by file size

	      sort by WORD instead of name: none -U, extension	-X,  size  -S,
	      time -t, version -v

	      with  -l,	 show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime
	      -u, access -u, use -u, ctime -c, or  status  -c;	use  specified
	      time as sort key if --sort=time

	      with  -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso,
	      locale, +FORMAT.	FORMAT is interpreted like 'date';  if	FORMAT
	      is  FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files
	      and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with 'posix-',
	      STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

       -t     sort by modification time

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
	      assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with  -lt:  sort	by, and show, access time with -l: show access
	      time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time

       -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

       -v     natural sort of (version) numbers within text

       -w, --width=COLS
	      assume screen width instead of current value

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -1     list one file per line

       SELinux options:

	      Display security context.	  Enable -l. Lines  will  probably  be
	      too wide for most displays.

       -Z, --context
	      Display  security context so it fits on most displays.  Displays
	      only mode, user, group, security context and file name.

	      Display only security context and file name.

       --help display this help and exit

	      output version information and exit

       SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one  of  fol-
       lowing: KB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T,
       P, E, Z, Y.

       Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by  default  and
       with  --color=never.  With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when
       standard output is connected to a terminal.  The LS_COLORS  environment
       variable can change the settings.  Use the dircolors command to set it.

   Exit status:
       0      if OK,

       1      if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

       2      if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line  argument).

       Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.

       Report ls bugs to
       GNU coreutils home page: <>
       General help using GNU software: <>
       Report ls translation bugs to <>

       Copyright  (C)  2010  Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU
       GPL version 3 or later <>.
       This is free software: you are free  to	change	and  redistribute  it.
       There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

       The  full  documentation	 for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
       the info and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the  com-

	      info coreutils 'ls invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.

GNU coreutils 8.4		   May 2016				 LS(1)							
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