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UNIX Manual | Commands
							MAILX(1)			 User Commands			      MAILX(1)

NAME
       mailx - send and receive Internet mail

SYNOPSIS
       mailx [-BDdEFintv~] [-s subject] [-a attachment ] [-c cc-addr] [-b bcc-
	      addr] [-r from-addr] [-h hops] [-A account] [-S vari-
	      able[=value]] to-addr . . .
       mailx [-BDdeEHiInNRv~] [-T name] [-A account] [-S variable[=value]] -f
	      [name]
       mailx [-BDdeEinNRv~] [-A account] [-S variable[=value]] [-u user]

DESCRIPTION
       Mailx is an intelligent mail processing system,	which  has  a  command
       syntax  reminiscent  of	ed(1)  with lines replaced by messages.	 It is
       based on Berkeley Mail 8.1, is intended to provide the functionality of
       the  POSIX  mailx  command, and offers extensions for MIME, IMAP, POP3,
       SMTP, and S/MIME.  Mailx provides  enhanced  features  for  interactive
       use,  such  as  caching	and  disconnected  operation for IMAP, message
       threading, scoring, and filtering.  It is also usable as a  mail	 batch
       language, both for sending and receiving mail.

       The following options are accepted:

       -A name
	      Executes	an  account  command  (see  below)  for name after the
	      startup files have been read.

       -a file
	      Attach the given file to the message.

       -B     Make standard input and standard output line-buffered.

       -b address
	      Send blind carbon copies to list.	 List should be a  comma-sepa-
	      rated list of names.

       -c address
	      Send carbon copies to list of users.

       -D     Start  in disconnected mode; see the description for the discon-
	      nected variable option.

       -d     Enables debugging messages and disables the actual  delivery  of
	      messages.	 Unlike -v, this option is intended for mailx develop-
	      ment only.

       -e     Just check if mail is present in the system  mailbox.   If  yes,
	      return an exit status of zero, else, a non-zero value.

       -E     If an outgoing message does not contain any text in its first or
	      only message part, do not	 send  it  but	discard	 it  silently,
	      effectively   setting  the  skipemptybody	 variable  at  program
	      startup.	This is	 useful	 for  sending  messages	 from  scripts
	      started by cron(8).

       -f [file]
	      Read  in the contents of the user's mbox (or the specified file)
	      for processing; when mailx is quit, it writes undeleted messages
	      back  to this file.  The string file is handled as described for
	      the folder command below.

       -F     Save the message to send in a file named after the local part of
	      the first recipient's address.

       -H     Print header summaries for all messages and exit.

       -h hops
	      Invoke  sendmail	with the specified hop count.  This option has
	      no effect when SMTP is used for sending mail.

       -i     Ignore tty interrupt signals.  This is particularly useful  when
	      using mailx on noisy phone lines.

       -I     Shows  the  'Newsgroup:'	or  'Article-Id:' fields in the header
	      summary.	Only applicable in combination with -f.

       -n     Inhibits reading /etc/mail.rc upon startup.  This option	should
	      be activated for mailx scripts that are invoked on more than one
	      machine, because the contents of that file  may  differ  between
	      them.

       -N     Inhibits	the  initial  display  of message headers when reading
	      mail or editing a mail folder.

       -q file
	      Start the message with the contents of the specified file.   May
	      be given in send mode only.

       -r address
	      Sets  the From address. Overrides any from variable specified in
	      environment or startup files.  Tilde escapes are disabled.   The
	      -r  address options are passed to the mail transfer agent unless
	      SMTP is used.  This option exists for compatibility only; it  is
	      recommended to set the from variable directly instead.

       -R     Opens any folders read-only.

       -s subject
	      Specify  subject	on command line (only the first argument after
	      the -s flag is used as a subject; be careful to  quote  subjects
	      containing spaces).

       -S variable[=value]
	      Sets  the	 internal  option  variable  and,  in case of a string
	      option, assigns value to it.

       -T name
	      Writes the 'Message-Id:' and 'Article-Id:' header fields of each
	      message  read  in	 the file name.	 Implies -I.  Compressed files
	      are handled as described for the folder command below.

       -t     The message to be sent is expected to contain a  message	header
	      with  'To:',  'Cc:',  or	'Bcc:'	fields	giving its recipients.
	      Recipients specified on the command line are ignored.

       -u user
	      Reads the mailbox of the given user name.

       -v     Verbose mode.  The details of  delivery  are  displayed  on  the
	      user's terminal.

       -V     Print mailx's version and exit.

       -~     Enable tilde escapes even if not in interactive mode.

   Sending mail
       To  send	 a  message  to	 one or more people, mailx can be invoked with
       arguments which are the names of people to whom the mail will be	 sent.
       The  user is then expected to type in his message, followed by an 'con-
       trol-D' at the beginning of a line.  The section below Replying	to  or
       originating  mail,  describes  some features of mailx available to help
       when composing letters.

   Reading mail
       In normal usage mailx is given no arguments and checks the user's  mail
       out  of the post office, then prints out a one line header of each mes-
       sage found.  The current message is initially the first	message	 (num-
       bered 1) and can be printed using the print command which can be abbre-
       viated 'p').  The user can move among the messages  much	 as  he	 moves
       between	lines in ed(1), with the commands '+' and '-' moving backwards
       and forwards, and simple numbers.

   Disposing of mail
       After examining a message the user can delete 'd') the message or reply
       'r') to it.  Deletion causes the mailx program to forget about the mes-
       sage.  This is not irreversible; the message can be undeleted  'u')  by
       giving  its  number,  or the mailx session can be aborted by giving the
       exit 'x') command.  Deleted messages will, however,  usually  disappear
       never to be seen again.

   Specifying messages
       Commands	 such  as print and delete can be given a list of message num-
       bers as arguments to apply to a	number	of  messages  at  once.	  Thus
       'delete	1 2' deletes messages 1 and 2, while 'delete 1-5' deletes mes-
       sages 1 through 5.  In sorted or threaded mode (see the sort and thread
       commands),  'delete  1-5' deletes the messages that are located between
       (and including) messages 1 through 5 in the sorted/threaded  order,  as
       shown  in  the  header  summary.	  The  following special message names
       exist:

       :n     All new messages.

       :o     All old messages (any not in state read or new).

       :u     All unread messages.

       :d     All deleted messages (for the undelete command).

       :r     All read messages.

       :f     All 'flagged' messages.

       :a     All answered messages (cf. the markanswered variable).

       :t     All messages marked as draft.

       :k     All 'killed' messages.

       :j     All messages classified as junk.

       .      The current message.

       ;      The message that was previously the current message.

       ,      The parent message of the current message, that is  the  message
	      with  the	 Message-ID  given  in the 'In-Reply-To:' field or the
	      last entry of the 'References:' field of the current message.

       -      The next	previous  undeleted  message,  or  the	next  previous
	      deleted  message	for  the undelete command.  In sorted/threaded
	      mode, the next previous  such  message  in  the  sorted/threaded
	      order.

       +      The  next undeleted message, or the next deleted message for the
	      undelete command.	 In sorted/threaded mode, the next  such  mes-
	      sage in the sorted/threaded order.

       ^      The  first  undeleted  message, or the first deleted message for
	      the undelete command.  In sorted/threaded mode, the  first  such
	      message in the sorted/threaded order.

       $      The  last message.  In sorted/threaded mode, the last message in
	      the sorted/threaded order.

       &x     In threaded mode, selects the message addressed with x, where  x
	      is  any  other  message specification, and all messages from the
	      thread that begins at it.	 Otherwise, it is identical to x.   If
	      x	 is  omitted, the thread beginning with the current message is
	      selected.

       *      All messages.

       '      All messages that were included in the message list for the pre-
	      vious command.

       /string
	      All  messages  that  contain  string  in the subject field (case
	      ignored).	 See also the searchheaders variable.	If  string  is
	      empty,  the  string from the previous specification of that type
	      is used again.

       address
	      All messages from address.

       (criterion)
	      All messages that satisfy the given IMAP-style SEARCH criterion.
	      This addressing mode is available with all types of folders; for
	      folders not located on IMAP servers, or for  servers  unable  to
	      execute  the  SEARCH  command,  mailx  will  perform  the search
	      locally.	Strings must be enclosed by double quotes '"' in their
	      entirety	if they contain white space or parentheses; within the
	      quotes, only backslash '\' is recognized as an escape character.
	      All  string searches are case-insensitive.  When the description
	      indicates that the 'envelope' representation of an address field
	      is  used,	 this  means that the search string is checked against
	      both a list constructed as

	      ("real name" "source-route" "local-part" "domain-part")

	      for each address, and the addresses without real names from  the
	      respective header field.	Criteria can be nested using parenthe-
	      ses.

       (criterion1 criterion2 ... criterionN)
	      All messages that satisfy all of the given criteria.

       (or criterion1 criterion2)
	      All messages that satisfy either criterion1  or  criterion2,  or
	      both.  To connect more than two criteria using 'or', (or) speci-
	      fications have to be nested  using  additional  parentheses,  as
	      with  '(or a (or b c))';	'(or a b c)'  means  ((a or b) and c).
	      For a simple 'or' operation of independent criteria on the  low-
	      est  nesting level, it is possible to achieve similar effects by
	      using three separate criteria, as with '(a) (b) (c)'.

       (not criterion)
	      All messages that do not satisfy criterion.

       (bcc string)
	      All messages that contain string in the  'envelope'  representa-
	      tion of the Bcc: field.

       (cc string)
	      All  messages  that contain string in the 'envelope' representa-
	      tion of the Cc: field.

       (from string)
	      All messages that contain string in the  'envelope'  representa-
	      tion of the From: field.

       (subject string)
	      All messages that contain string in the Subject: field.

       (to string)
	      All  messages  that contain string in the 'envelope' representa-
	      tion of the To: field.

       (header name string)
	      All messages that contain string in the specified Name: field.

       (body string)
	      All messages that contain string in their body.

       (text string)
	      All messages that contain string in their header or body.

       (larger size)
	      All messages that are larger than size (in bytes).

       (smaller size)
	      All messages that are smaller than size (in bytes).

       (before date)
	      All messages that were received before date; date must be in the
	      form d[d]-mon-yyyy, where d[d] is the day of the month as one or
	      two digits, mon is the name of the month--one  of	 'Jan',	 'Feb',
	      'Mar',  'Apr',  'May', 'Jun', 'Jul', 'Aug', 'Sep', 'Oct', 'Nov',
	      or  'Dec',  and  yyyy  is	 the  year  as	 four	digits;	  e.g.
	      "30-Aug-2004".

       (on date)
	      All messages that were received on the specified date.

       (since date)
	      All messages that were received since the specified date.

       (sentbefore date)
	      All messages that were sent on the specified date.

       (senton date)
	      All messages that were sent on the specified date.

       (sentsince date)
	      All messages that were sent since the specified date.

       ()     The  same criterion as for the previous search.  This specifica-
	      tion cannot be used as part of another criterion.	 If the previ-
	      ous  command line contained more than one independent criterion,
	      the last of those criteria is used.

       A practical method to read a set of messages is to issue a from command
       with  the  search criteria first to check for appropriate messages, and
       to read each single message then by typing ''' repeatedly.

   Replying to or originating mail
       The reply command can be used to set up a response to a message,	 send-
       ing  it	back  to  the  person who it was from.	Text the user types in
       then, up to an end-of-file, defines the contents of the message.	 While
       the  user is composing a message, mailx treats lines beginning with the
       character '~' specially.	 For instance, typing '~m' (alone on  a	 line)
       will place a copy of the current message into the response right shift-
       ing it by a tabstop (see indentprefix variable, below).	Other  escapes
       will  set  up subject fields, add and delete recipients to the message,
       attach files to it and allow the user to escape to an editor to	revise
       the  message  or	 to  a shell to run some commands.  (These options are
       given in the summary below.)

   Ending a mail processing session
       The user can end a mailx session with the quit ('q') command.  Messages
       which  have  been  examined go to the user's mbox file unless they have
       been deleted in which case they are discarded.  Unexamined messages  go
       back to the post office.	 (See the -f option above).

   Personal and systemwide distribution lists
       It  is  also  possible to create a personal distribution lists so that,
       for instance, the user can send mail to 'cohorts' and have it go	 to  a
       group of people.	 Such lists can be defined by placing a line like

	       alias cohorts bill ozalp jkf mark kridle@ucbcory

       in  the file .mailrc in the user's home directory.  The current list of
       such aliases can be displayed with the alias command in mailx.	System
       wide  distribution  lists  can  be created by editing /etc/aliases, see
       aliases(5) and sendmail(8); these are kept in a different  syntax.   In
       mail  the user sends, personal aliases will be expanded in mail sent to
       others so that they will be able to reply to  the  recipients.	System
       wide  aliases  are  not	expanded  when the mail is sent, but any reply
       returned to the machine will have the system wide alias expanded as all
       mail goes through sendmail.

   Recipient address specifications
       If  the expandaddr option is not set (the default), recipient addresses
       must be names of local mailboxes or Internet mail addresses.

       If the expandaddr option is set, the following  rules  apply:  When  an
       address	is  used to name a recipient (in any of To, Cc, or Bcc), names
       of local mail folders and pipes to external commands can also be speci-
       fied;  the  message  text  is then written to them.  The rules are: Any
       name which starts with a '|' character specifies a  pipe,  the  command
       string  following  the  '|'  is executed and the message is sent to its
       standard input; any other  name	which  contains	 a  '@'	 character  is
       treated as a mail address; any other name which starts with a '+' char-
       acter specifies a folder name; any other	 name  which  contains	a  '/'
       character  but  no '!'  or '%' character before also specifies a folder
       name; what remains is treated as a mail	address.   Compressed  folders
       are handled as described for the folder command below.

   Network mail (Internet / ARPA, UUCP, Berknet)
       See  mailaddr(7)	 for  a description of network addresses.  Mailx has a
       number of options which can be set in the .mailrc  file	to  alter  its
       behavior;  thus	'set askcc' enables the askcc feature.	(These options
       are summarized below).

   MIME types
       For any outgoing attachment, mailx tries to determine the content type.
       It  does this by reading MIME type files whose lines have the following
       syntax:

	       type/subtype	 extension [extension . . .]

       where type/subtype are strings describing the file contents, and exten-
       sion  is	 the part of a filename starting after the last dot.  Any line
       not immediately beginning  with	an  ASCII  alphabetical	 character  is
       ignored	by  mailx.  If there is a match with the extension of the file
       to attach, the given type/subtype pair is used.	Otherwise, or  if  the
       filename	 has  no  extension,  the content types text/plain or applica-
       tion/octet-stream are used, the first for text  or  international  text
       files,  the  second  for	 any  file that contains formatting characters
       other than newlines and horizontal tabulators.

   Character sets
       Mailx normally detects the character set	 of  the  terminal  using  the
       LC_CTYPE	 locale	 setting.  If the locale cannot be used appropriately,
       the ttycharset variable should be set to	 provide  an  explicit	value.
       When  reading messages, their text is converted to the terminal charac-
       ter set if possible.  Unprintable characters and illegal byte sequences
       are  detected and replaced by Unicode substitute characters or question
       marks unless the print-all-chars is set at initialization time.

       The character set for outgoing messages is not necessarily the same  as
       the  one	 used  on  the terminal.  If an outgoing text message contains
       characters not representable in US-ASCII, the character set being  used
       must be declared within its header.  Permissible values can be declared
       using the sendcharsets variable, separated by commas; mailx tries  each
       of the values in order and uses the first appropriate one.  If the mes-
       sage contains characters that cannot be represented in any of the given
       character  sets,	 the  message  will  not be sent, and its text will be
       saved to the 'dead.letter' file.	 Messages that contain NUL  bytes  are
       not converted.

       Outgoing	 attachments  are  converted  if  they are plain text.	If the
       sendcharsets variable contains more than one character set name, the ~@
       tilde escape will ask for the character sets for individual attachments
       if it is invoked without arguments.

       Best results are usually achieved when mailx is run in a	 UTF-8	locale
       on  a  UTF-8  capable terminal.	In this setup, characters from various
       countries can be displayed, while it is still possible to use more sim-
       ple  character  sets  for  sending to retain maximum compatibility with
       older mail clients.

   Commands
       Each command is typed on a line by itself, and may take arguments  fol-
       lowing the command word.	 The command need not be typed in its entirety
       - the first command which matches the typed prefix is used.   For  com-
       mands  which  take  message  lists  as arguments, if no message list is
       given, then the next message  forward  which  satisfies	the  command's
       requirements  is used.  If there are no messages forward of the current
       message, the search proceeds backwards, and if there are no  good  mes-
       sages at all, mailx types 'applicable messages' and aborts the command.
       If the command begins with a # sign, the line is ignored.

       The arguments to commands can be quoted, using the following methods:

       ?      An argument can be enclosed between paired double-quotes	""  or
	      single-quotes  '';  any  white  space,  shell word expansion, or
	      backslash characters within the quotes are treated literally  as
	      part  of the argument.  A double-quote will be treated literally
	      within single-quotes and vice versa. These special properties of
	      the quote marks occur only when they are paired at the beginning
	      and end of the argument.

       ?      A backslash outside of the enclosing quotes is discarded and the
	      following	 character  is	treated literally as part of the argu-
	      ment.

       ?      An unquoted backslash at the end of a command line is  discarded
	      and the next line continues the command.

       Filenames,  where  expected, are subjected to the following transforma-
       tions, in sequence:

       ?      If the filename begins with  an  unquoted	 plus  sign,  and  the
	      folder  variable	is  defined, the plus sign will be replaced by
	      the value of the folder variable followed by  a  slash.  If  the
	      folder variable is unset or is set to null, the filename will be
	      unchanged.

       ?      Shell word expansions are applied to the filename.  If more than
	      a single pathname results from this expansion and the command is
	      expecting one file, an error results.

       The following commands are provided:

       -      Print out the preceding message.	If given a numeric argument n,
	      goes to the n'th previous message and prints it.

       ?      Prints a brief summary of commands.

       !      Executes the shell (see sh(1) and csh(1)) command which follows.

       |      A synonym for the pipe command.

       account
	      (ac) Creates, selects or lists an email account.	An account  is
	      formed  by  a group of commands, primarily of those to set vari-
	      ables.  With two arguments, of which the second is  a  '{',  the
	      first  argument  gives  an account name, and the following lines
	      create a group of commands for that account until	 a  line  con-
	      taining a single '}' appears.  With one argument, the previously
	      created group of commands for the account name is executed,  and
	      a	 folder command is executed for the system mailbox or inbox of
	      that account.  Without arguments, the list of accounts and their
	      contents are printed.  As an example,

		  account myisp {
		      set folder=imaps://mylogin@imap.myisp.example
		      set record=+Sent
		      set from="myname@myisp.example (My Name)"
		      set smtp=smtp.myisp.example
		  }

	      creates  an account named 'myisp' which can later be selected by
	      specifying 'account myisp'.

       alias  (a) With no arguments, prints out all currently-defined aliases.
	      With  one	 argument,  prints out that alias.  With more than one
	      argument, creates a new alias or changes an old one.

       alternates
	      (alt) The alternates command is useful if the user has  accounts
	      on  several  machines.   It can be used to inform mailx that the
	      listed addresses all belong  to  the  invoking  user.   When  he
	      replies  to  messages, mailx will not send a copy of the message
	      to any of the addresses listed on the alternates list.   If  the
	      alternates command is given with no argument, the current set of
	      alternate names is displayed.

       answered
	      (ans) Takes a message list and marks each message	 as  a	having
	      been  answered.	This mark has no technical meaning in the mail
	      system; it just causes messages to be marked in the header  sum-
	      mary, and makes them specially addressable.

       cache  Only  applicable	to cached IMAP mailboxes; takes a message list
	      and reads the specified messages into the IMAP cache.

       call   Calls a macro (see the define command).

       cd     Same as chdir.

       certsave
	      Only applicable to S/MIME signed messages.  Takes a message list
	      and  a file name and saves the certificates contained within the
	      message signatures to the named file in both human-readable  and
	      PEM  format.   The  certificates	can  later  be	used  to  send
	      encrypted messages to the messages' originators by  setting  the
	      smime-encrypt-user@host variable.

       chdir  (ch)  Changes the user's working directory to that specified, if
	      given.  If no directory is given, then  changes  to  the	user's
	      login directory.

       classify
	      (cl)  Takes  a  list of messages and examines their contents for
	      characteristics of junk mail using Bayesian filtering.  Messages
	      considered  to  be  junk are then marked as such.	 The junk mail
	      database is not changed.

       collapse
	      (coll) Only applicable to threaded mode.	Takes a	 message  list
	      and makes all replies to these messages invisible in header sum-
	      maries, unless they are in state 'new'.

       connect
	      (conn) If operating in disconnected mode	on  an	IMAP  mailbox,
	      switch  to  online  mode	and  connect  to the mail server while
	      retaining the mailbox status.  See the description of  the  dis-
	      connected variable for more information.

       copy   (c)  The copy command does the same thing that save does, except
	      that it does not mark the messages it is used  on	 for  deletion
	      when  the	 user  quits.  Compressed files and IMAP mailboxes are
	      handled as described for the folder command.

       Copy   (C) Similar to copy, but saves the  messages  in	a  file	 named
	      after the local part of the sender address of the first message.

       decrypt
	      (dec) For unencrypted messages, this  command  is	 identical  to
	      copy.   Encrypted messages are first decrypted, if possible, and
	      then copied.

       Decrypt
	      (Dec) Similar to decrypt, but saves the messages in a file named
	      after the local part of the sender address of the first message.

       define (def) Defines a macro.  A macro definition is a sequence of com-
	      mands in the following form:

		  define name {
		      command1
		      command2
		      ...
		      commandN
		  }

	      Once  defined,  a macro can be explicitly invoked using the call
	      command, or can be implicitly invoked by setting the folder-hook
	      or folder-hook-fullname variables.

       defines
	      Prints the currently defined macros including their contents.

       delete (d)  Takes  a list of messages as argument and marks them all as
	      deleted.	Deleted messages will not be saved in mbox,  nor  will
	      they be available for most other commands.

       discard
	      Same as ignore.

       disconnect
	      (disco)  If  operating in online mode on an IMAP mailbox, switch
	      to disconnected mode while retaining the	mailbox	 status.   See
	      the  description	of the disconnected variable for more informa-
	      tion.  A list of messages may optionally be given	 as  argument;
	      the  respective messages are then read into the cache before the
	      connection is closed.  Thus 'disco *' makes the  entire  current
	      mailbox available for disconnected use.

       dp or dt
	      Deletes  the  current  message  and prints the next message.  If
	      there is no next message, mailx says 'at EOF'.

       draft  Takes a message list and marks each message as  a	 draft.	  This
	      mark has no technical meaning in the mail system; it just causes
	      messages to be marked in the header summary, and makes them spe-
	      cially addressable.

       echo   Echoes  its arguments, resolving special names as documented for
	      the folder command.  The	escape	sequences  '\a',  '\b',	 '\c',
	      '\f',  '\n', '\r', '\t', '\v', '\\', and '\0num' are interpreted
	      as with the echo(1) command.

       edit   (e) Takes a list of messages and points the text editor at  each
	      one  in turn.  Modified contents are discarded unless the write-
	      backedited variable is set.

       else   Marks the end of the then-part of an if statement and the begin-
	      ning  of	the  part  to  take  effect if the condition of the if
	      statement is false.

       endif  Marks the end of an if statement.

       exit   (ex or x) Effects an immediate return to the Shell without modi-
	      fying the user's system mailbox, his mbox file, or his edit file
	      in -f.

       file   (fi) The same as folder.

       flag   (fl) Takes a message list and marks the  messages	 as  'flagged'
	      for  urgent/special attention.  This mark has no technical mean-
	      ing in the mail system; it just  causes  messages	 to  be	 high-
	      lighted in the header summary, and makes them specially address-
	      able.

       folders
	      With no arguments, list the names of the folders in  the	folder
	      directory.   With	 an existing folder as an argument, lists then
	      names of folders below the named folder; e.g. the command 'fold-
	      ers  @'  lists the folders on the base level of the current IMAP
	      server.  See also the imap-list-depth variable.

       folder (fold) The folder command switches to a new mail file or folder.
	      With  no arguments, it tells the user which file he is currently
	      reading.	If an argument is given, it  will  write  out  changes
	      (such  as	 deletions)  the user has made in the current file and
	      read in the new file.  Some special conventions  are  recognized
	      for  the	name.  # means the previous file, % means the invoking
	      user's system mailbox, %user  means  user's  system  mailbox,  &
	      means  the  invoking user's mbox file, and +file means a file in
	      the folder directory.  %:filespec expands to the same  value  as
	      filespec,	 but  the file is handled as a system mailbox e. g. by
	      the mbox and save commands.  If the  name	 matches  one  of  the
	      strings defined with the shortcut command, it is replaced by its
	      long form and expanded.  If the name ends with .gz or  .bz2,  it
	      is treated as compressed with gzip(1) or bzip2(1), respectively.
	      Likewise, if name does not exist, but either name.gz or name.bz2
	      exists, the compressed file is used.  If name refers to a direc-
	      tory with the subdirectories 'tmp',  'new',  and	'cur',	it  is
	      treated as a folder in maildir format.  A name of the form

		     protocol://[user@]host[:port][/file]

	      is  taken	 as  an Internet mailbox specification.	 The supported
	      protocols are currently  imap  (IMAP  v4r1),  imaps  (IMAP  with
	      SSL/TLS  encryption),  pop3 (POP3), and pop3s (POP3 with SSL/TLS
	      encryption).  If user contains special characters, in particular
	      '/'  or  '%',  they must be escaped in URL notation, as '%2F' or
	      '%25'.  The optional file part applies to IMAP only;  if	it  is
	      omitted,	the default 'INBOX' is used.  If mailx is connected to
	      an IMAP server, a name of the form @mailbox refers to the	 mail-
	      box  on that server.  If the 'folder' variable refers to an IMAP
	      account, the special  name  '%'  selects	the  'INBOX'  on  that
	      account.

       Followup
	      (F)  Similar  to	Respond, but saves the message in a file named
	      after the local part of the first recipient's address.

       followup
	      (fo) Similar to respond, but saves the message in a  file	 named
	      after the local part of the first recipient's address.

       followupall
	      Similar  to  followup, but responds to all recipients regardless
	      of the flipr and Replyall variables.

       followupsender
	      Similar to Followup, but responds to the sender only  regardless
	      of the flipr and Replyall variables.

       forward
	      (fwd)  Takes  a  message and the address of a recipient and for-
	      wards the message to him.	 The text of the original  message  is
	      included	in the new one, with the value of the fwdheading vari-
	      able printed before.  The fwdignore and fwdretain commands spec-
	      ify  which  header fields are included in the new message.  Only
	      the first part of a multipart message  is	 included  unless  the
	      forward-as-attachment option is set.

       Forward
	      (Fwd)  Similar to forward, but saves the message in a file named
	      after the local part of the recipient's address.

       from   (f) Takes a list of messages and prints their  message  headers,
	      piped  through  the  pager  if  the  output  does not fit on the
	      screen.

       fwdignore
	      Specifies which header fields are to be ignored with the forward
	      command.	This command has no effect when the forward-as-attach-
	      ment option is set.

       fwdretain
	      Specifies which header fields are to be retained with  the  for-
	      ward  command.  fwdretain overrides fwdignore.  This command has
	      no effect when the forward-as-attachment option is set.

       good   (go) Takes a list of messages and marks all of them as not being
	      junk  mail.   Data from these messages is then inserted into the
	      junk mail database for future classification.

       headers
	      (h) Lists the current range of headers, which is	an  18-message
	      group.   If  a  '+'  argument is given, then the next 18-message
	      group is printed, and if a '-' argument is given,	 the  previous
	      18-message group is printed.

       help   A synonym for ?.

       hold   (ho,  also preserve) Takes a message list and marks each message
	      therein to be saved in the user's system mailbox instead	of  in
	      mbox.   Does  not	 override  the delete command.	mailx deviates
	      from the POSIX standard with this command, as a  'next'  command
	      issued  after 'hold' will display the following message, not the
	      current one.

       if     Commands in mailx's startup files can be executed	 conditionally
	      depending	 on whether the user is sending or receiving mail with
	      the if command.  For example:

		      if receive
			      commands . . .
		      endif

	      An else form is also available:

		      if receive
			      commands . . .
		      else
			      commands . . .
		      endif

	      Note that the only allowed conditions  are  receive,  send,  and
	      term (execute command if standard input is a tty).

       ignore Add the list of header fields named to the ignored list.	Header
	      fields in the ignore list are not printed on the terminal when a
	      message  is printed.  This command is very handy for suppression
	      of certain machine-generated header fields.  The Type and	 Print
	      commands can be used to print a message in its entirety, includ-
	      ing ignored fields.  If ignore is executed with no arguments, it
	      lists the current set of ignored fields.

       imap   Sends  command  strings  directly	 to  the  current IMAP server.
	      Mailx operates always in IMAP  selected  state  on  the  current
	      mailbox;	commands  that	change	this  will produce undesirable
	      results and should be avoided.  Useful IMAP commands are:

	      create Takes the name of an IMAP mailbox as an argument and cre-
		     ates it.

	      getquotaroot
		     Takes  the	 name  of  an  IMAP mailbox as an argument and
		     prints the quotas that apply to  the  mailbox.   Not  all
		     IMAP servers support this command.

	      namespace
		     Takes  no	arguments  and prints the Personal Namespaces,
		     the Other User's Namespaces, and the  Shared  Namespaces.
		     Each  namespace  type is printed in parentheses; if there
		     are multiple namespaces of the same type, inner parenthe-
		     ses  separate them.  For each namespace, a namespace pre-
		     fix and a hierarchy separator is listed.	Not  all  IMAP
		     servers support this command.

       inc    Same as newmail.

       junk   (j) Takes a list of messages and marks all of them as junk mail.
	      Data from these messages is then inserted	 into  the  junk  mail
	      database for future classification.

       kill   (k)  Takes a list of messages and 'kills' them.  Killed messages
	      are not printed in header summaries, and are ignored by the next
	      command.	 The  kill command also sets the score of the messages
	      to negative infinity, so that subsequent score commands will not
	      unkill  them  again.   Killing is only effective for the current
	      session on a folder; when it is quit, all messages are automati-
	      cally unkilled.

       list   Prints the names of all available commands.

       Mail   (M) Similar to mail, but saves the message in a file named after
	      the local part of the first recipient's address.

       mail   (m) Takes as argument login names and distribution  group	 names
	      and sends mail to those people.

       mbox   Indicate	that  a list of messages be sent to mbox in the user's
	      home directory when mailx is quit.  This is the  default	action
	      for  messages  if unless the hold option is set.	mailx deviates
	      from the POSIX standard with this command, as a  'next'  command
	      issued  after 'mbox' will display the following message, not the
	      current one.

       move   (mv) Acts like copy, but marks the messages for deletion if they
	      were transferred successfully.

       Move   (Mv)  Similar  to	 move,	but moves the messages to a file named
	      after the local part of the sender address of the first message.

       newmail
	      Checks for new mail in the current folder without committing any
	      changes before.  If new mail is present, a message  is  printed.
	      If  the  header variable is set, the headers of each new message
	      are also printed.

       next   (n) like + or CR) Goes to the next message in sequence and types
	      it.  With an argument list, types the next matching message.

       New    Same as unread.

       new    Same as unread.

       online Same as connect.

       noop   If  the  current	folder is located on an IMAP or POP3 server, a
	      NOOP command is sent.  Otherwise, no operation is performed.

       Pipe   (Pi) Like pipe but also pipes  ignored  header  fields  and  all
	      parts of MIME multipart/alternative messages.

       pipe   (pi) Takes a message list and a shell command and pipes the mes-
	      sages through the command.  Without  an  argument,  the  current
	      message  is piped through the command given by the cmd variable.
	      If the  page variable is set, every message  is  followed	 by  a
	      formfeed character.

       preserve
	      (pre) A synonym for hold.

       Print  (P) Like print but also prints out ignored header fields and all
	      parts of MIME multipart/alternative messages.  See  also	print,
	      ignore, and retain.

       print  (p)  Takes  a  message  list  and	 types out each message on the
	      user's terminal.	If the message is a  MIME  multipart  message,
	      all  parts with a content type of 'text' or 'message' are shown,
	      the other are hidden except for  their  headers.	 Messages  are
	      decrypted	 and converted to the terminal character set if neces-
	      sary.

       probability
	      (prob) For each word given as argument, the contents of its junk
	      mail database entry are printed.

       quit   (q)  Terminates  the session, saving all undeleted, unsaved mes-
	      sages in the user's mbox file in his login directory, preserving
	      all messages marked with hold or preserve or never referenced in
	      his system mailbox, and removing all  other  messages  from  his
	      system mailbox.  If new mail has arrived during the session, the
	      message 'You have new mail' is given.  If given while editing  a
	      mailbox  file with the -f flag, then the edit file is rewritten.
	      A return to the Shell is effected, unless the  rewrite  of  edit
	      file fails, in which case the user can escape with the exit com-
	      mand.

       redirect
	      (red) Same as resend.

       Redirect
	      (Red) Same as Resend.

       remove (rem) Removes the named folders.	The user is asked for  confir-
	      mation in interactive mode.

       rename (ren)  Takes the name of an existing folder and the name for the
	      new folder and renames the first to the second one.  Both	 fold-
	      ers  must be of the same type and must be located on the current
	      server for IMAP.

       Reply  (R) Reply to originator.	Does not reply to other recipients  of
	      the original message.

       reply  (r)  Takes  a  message list and sends mail to the sender and all
	      recipients of the specified message.  The default	 message  must
	      not be deleted.

       replyall
	      Similar  to  reply, but responds to all recipients regardless of
	      the flipr and Replyall variables.

       replysender
	      Similar to Reply, but responds to the sender only regardless  of
	      the flipr and Replyall variables.

       Resend Like  resend,  but does not add any header lines.	 This is not a
	      way to hide the sender's identity, but useful for sending a mes-
	      sage again to the same recipients.

       resend Takes  a list of messages and a user name and sends each message
	      to the named user.  'Resent-From:' and related header fields are
	      prepended to the new copy of the message.

       Respond
	      Same as Reply.

       respond
	      Same as reply.

       respondall
	      Same as replyall.

       respondsender
	      Same as replysender.

       retain Add  the list of header fields named to the retained list.  Only
	      the header fields in the retain list are shown on	 the  terminal
	      when  a  message	is  printed.  All other header fields are sup-
	      pressed.	The Type and Print commands can be  used  to  print  a
	      message  in  its	entirety.  If retain is executed with no argu-
	      ments, it lists the current set of retained fields.

       Save   (S) Similar to save, but saves the  messages  in	a  file	 named
	      after  the local part of the sender of the first message instead
	      of taking a filename argument.

       save   (s) Takes a message list and a filename and appends each message
	      in  turn	to  the end of the file.  If no filename is given, the
	      mbox file is used.  The filename in quotes, followed by the line
	      count  and character count is echoed on the user's terminal.  If
	      editing a system mailbox, the messages are marked for  deletion.
	      Compressed files and IMAP mailboxes are handled as described for
	      the -f command line option above.

       savediscard
	      Same as saveignore.

       saveignore
	      Saveignore is to save what ignore is to print and type.	Header
	      fields  thus  marked  are	 filtered out when saving a message by
	      save or when automatically saving to mbox.  This command	should
	      only be applied to header fields that do not contain information
	      needed to decode the message, as MIME  content  fields  do.   If
	      saving  messages	on  an	IMAP account, ignoring fields makes it
	      impossible to copy the data directly on the server, thus	opera-
	      tion usually becomes much slower.

       saveretain
	      Saveretain  is to save what retain is to print and type.	Header
	      fields thus marked are the only ones saved with a	 message  when
	      saving by save or when automatically saving to mbox.  Saveretain
	      overrides saveignore.  The use of this command is strongly  dis-
	      couraged	since  it  may	strip header fields that are needed to
	      decode the message correctly.

       score  (sc) Takes a message list and a floating point number  and  adds
	      the  number  to  the  score of each given message.  All messages
	      start at score 0 when a folder is opened.	 When the score	 of  a
	      message  becomes	negative,  it  is  'killed'  with  the effects
	      described for the kill command; otherwise	 if  it	 was  negative
	      before  and  becomes  positive,  it  is 'unkilled'.  Scores only
	      refer to the currently opened instance of a folder.

       set    (se) With	 no  arguments,	 prints	 all  variable	values,	 piped
	      through  the  pager  if  the  output does not fit on the screen.
	      Otherwise, sets option.  Arguments are of the form  option=value
	      (no  space before or after =) or option.	Quotation marks may be
	      placed around any part of	 the  assignment  statement  to	 quote
	      blanks  or  tabs,	 i.e. 'set indentprefix="->"'.	If an argument
	      begins with no, as in 'set nosave', the effect is	 the  same  as
	      invoking	the unset command with the remaining part of the vari-
	      able ('unset save').

       seen   Takes a message list and marks all messages as having been read.

       shell  (sh) Invokes an interactive version of the shell.

       shortcut
	      Defines  a  shortcut  name  and  its  string  for	 expansion, as
	      described for the folder command.	 With no arguments, a list  of
	      defined shortcuts is printed.

       show   (Sh)  Like print, but performs neither MIME decoding nor decryp-
	      tion so that the raw message text is shown.

       size   Takes a message list and prints out the size  in	characters  of
	      each message.

       sort   Create a sorted representation of the current folder, and change
	      the next command and the addressing modes such that  they	 refer
	      to  messages  in the sorted order.  Message numbers are the same
	      as in regular mode.  If the header variable  is  set,  a	header
	      summary in the new order is also printed.	 Possible sorting cri-
	      teria are:

	      date   Sort the messages by their 'Date:' field, that is by  the
		     time they were sent.

	      from   Sort  messages  by the value of their 'From:' field, that
		     is by the address of the sender.  If the  showname	 vari-
		     able is set, the sender's real name (if any) is used.

	      size   Sort the messages by their size.

	      score  Sort the messages by their score.

	      status Sort  the	messages  by  their message status (new, read,
		     old, etc.).

	      subject
		     Sort the messages by their subject.

	      thread Create a threaded order, as with the thread command.

	      to     Sort messages by the value of their 'To:' field, that  is
		     by	 the  address of the recipient.	 If the showname vari-
		     able is set, the recipient's real name (if any) is	 used.

	      If  no  argument	is  given,  the	 current  sorting criterion is
	      printed.

       source The source command reads commands from a file.

       thread (th) Create a threaded representation  of	 the  current  folder,
	      i.e.  indent  messages that are replies to other messages in the
	      header display, and change the next command and  the  addressing
	      modes  such  that	 they refer to messages in the threaded order.
	      Message numbers are the same as  in  unthreaded  mode.   If  the
	      header  variable	is  set, a header summary in threaded order is
	      also printed.

       top    Takes a message list and prints the top few lines of each.   The
	      number  of  lines printed is controlled by the variable toplines
	      and defaults to five.

       touch  Takes a message list and marks the messages for  saving  in  the
	      mbox  file.   mailx  deviates  from the POSIX standard with this
	      command, as a 'next' command issued after	 'mbox'	 will  display
	      the following message, not the current one.

       Type   (T) Identical to the Print command.

       type   (t) A synonym for print.

       unalias
	      Takes a list of names defined by alias commands and discards the
	      remembered groups of users.  The group names no longer have  any
	      significance.

       unanswered
	      Takes  a	message list and marks each message as not having been
	      answered.

       uncollapse
	      (unc) Only applicable to threaded mode.  Takes  a	 message  list
	      and  makes  the  message and all replies to it visible in header
	      summaries again.	When a message becomes the current message, it
	      is  automatically	 made  visible.	 Also when a message with col-
	      lapsed replies is printed, all of these are automatically uncol-
	      lapsed.

       undef  Undefines each of the named macros.  It is not an error to use a
	      name that does not  belong  to  one  of  the  currently  defined
	      macros.

       undelete
	      (u)  Takes  a  message  list and marks each message as not being
	      deleted.

       undraft
	      Takes a message list and marks each message as a draft.

       unflag Takes a message  list  and  marks	 each  message	as  not	 being
	      'flagged'.

       unfwdignore
	      Removes  the  header field names from the list of ignored fields
	      for the forward command.

       unfwdretain
	      Removes the header field names from the list of retained	fields
	      for the forward command.

       ungood Takes  a	message	 list  and undoes the effect of a good command
	      that was previously applied on exactly these messages.

       unignore
	      Removes the header field names from the list of ignored  fields.

       unjunk Takes  a	message	 list  and undoes the effect of a junk command
	      that was previously applied on exactly these messages.

       unkill Takes a message list and 'unkills' each message.	Also sets  the
	      score of the messages to 0.

       Unread Same as unread.

       unread (U)  Takes  a  message list and marks each message as not having
	      been read.

       unretain
	      Removes the header field names from the list of retained fields.

       unsaveignore
	      Removes  the  header field names from the list of ignored fields
	      for saving.

       unsaveretain
	      Removes the header field names from the list of retained	fields
	      for saving.

       unset  Takes  a list of option names and discards their remembered val-
	      ues; the inverse of set.

       unshortcut
	      Deletes the shortcut names given as arguments.

       unsort Disable sorted or threaded mode (see the sort  and  thread  com-
	      mands),  return to normal message order and, if the header vari-
	      able is set, print a header summary.

       unthread
	      (unth) Same as unsort.

       verify (verif) Takes a message list and verifies each  message.	 If  a
	      message  is not an S/MIME signed message, verification will fail
	      for it.  The verification process	 checks	 if  the  message  was
	      signed  using a valid certificate, if the message sender's email
	      address matches one of those contained within  the  certificate,
	      and if the message content has been altered.

       visual (v)  Takes a message list and invokes the display editor on each
	      message.	Modified contents  are	discarded  unless  the	write-
	      backedited variable is set.

       write  (w)  For	conventional messages, the body without all headers is
	      written.	The output is decrypted and converted  to  its	native
	      format,  if  necessary.	If the output file exists, the text is
	      appended.--If a message is in MIME multipart  format,  its  first
	      part  is	written to the specified file as for conventional mes-
	      sages, and the user is asked for a filename to save  each	 other
	      part;  if	 the  contents	of the first part are not to be saved,
	      'write /dev/null' can be used.  For the  second  and  subsequent
	      parts,  if  the  filename given starts with a '|' character, the
	      part is piped through the remainder of the filename  interpreted
	      as  a shell command.  In non-interactive mode, only the parts of
	      the multipart message that have a filename  given	 in  the  part
	      header  are written, the other are discarded.  The original mes-
	      sage is never  marked  for  deletion  in	the  originating  mail
	      folder.	For  attachments, the contents of the destination file
	      are overwritten if the file previously existed.  No special han-
	      dling of compressed files is performed.

       xit    (x) A synonym for exit.

       z      Mailx  presents message headers in windowfuls as described under
	      the headers command.  The z command scrolls to the  next	window
	      of  messages.   If an argument is given, it specifies the window
	      to use.  A number prefixed by '+' or '-' indicates that the win-
	      dow is calculated in relation to the current position.  A number
	      without a prefix specifies an absolute window number, and a  '$'
	      lets mailx scroll to the last window of messages.

       Z      Similar  to  z,  but scrolls to the next or previous window that
	      contains at least one new or 'flagged' message.

   Tilde escapes
       Here is a summary of the tilde escapes, which are used  when  composing
       messages	 to  perform special functions.	 Tilde escapes are only recog-
       nized at the beginning of lines.	 The name 'tilde escape'  is  somewhat
       of  a  misnomer	since  the  actual  escape character can be set by the
       option escape.

       ~!command
	      Execute the indicated shell command, then return to the message.

       ~.     Same effect as typing the end-of-file character.

       ~<filename
	      Identical to ~r.

       ~<!command
	      Command  is  executed  using  the shell.	Its standard output is
	      inserted into the message.

       ~@ [filename . . . ]
	      With no arguments, edit the attachment list.   First,  the  user
	      can  edit all existing attachment data.  If an attachment's file
	      name is left empty, that attachment is deleted  from  the	 list.
	      When  the	 end of the attachment list is reached, mailx will ask
	      for further attachments, until an empty file name is given.   If
	      filename	arguments  are	specified, all of them are appended to
	      the end of the attachment list.  Filenames which	contain	 white
	      space  can  only be specified with the first method (no filename
	      arguments).

       ~A     Inserts the string contained in the Sign variable (same  as  '~i
	      Sign').	The  escape  sequences '\t' (tabulator) and '\n' (new-
	      line) are understood.

       ~a     Inserts the string contained in the sign variable (same  as  '~i
	      sign').	The  escape  sequences '\t' (tabulator) and '\n' (new-
	      line) are understood.

       ~bname . . .
	      Add the given names to the list of carbon copy recipients but do
	      not  make	 the  names  visible  in  the Cc: line ('blind' carbon
	      copy).

       ~cname . . .
	      Add the given names to the list of carbon copy recipients.

       ~d     Read the file 'dead.letter' from the user's home directory  into
	      the message.

       ~e     Invoke  the  text editor on the message collected so far.	 After
	      the editing session is finished, the user may continue appending
	      text to the message.

       ~fmessages
	      Read the named messages into the message being sent.  If no mes-
	      sages are specified, read in the current message.	 Message head-
	      ers  currently  being  ignored (by the ignore or retain command)
	      are not included.	 For MIME multipart messages, only  the	 first
	      printable part is included.

       ~Fmessages
	      Identical	 to  ~f, except all message headers and all MIME parts
	      are included.

       ~h     Edit the message header fields 'To:', 'Cc:', 'Bcc:',  and	 'Sub-
	      ject:'  by  typing  each	one  in	 turn and allowing the user to
	      append text to the end or modify the field by using the  current
	      terminal erase and kill characters.

       ~H     Edit  the message header fields 'From:', 'Reply-To:', 'Sender:',
	      and 'Organization:' in the same manner as described for ~h.  The
	      default  values  for  these  fields  originate  from  the	 from,
	      replyto, and ORGANIZATION variables.  If this tilde command  has
	      been  used,  changing the variables has no effect on the current
	      message anymore.

       ~ivariable
	      Insert the value of the  specified  variable  into  the  message
	      adding a newline character at the end.  If the variable is unset
	      or empty, the message remains unaltered.	The  escape  sequences
	      '\t' (tabulator) and '\n' (newline) are understood.

       ~mmessages
	      Read the named messages into the message being sent, indented by
	      a tab or by the value of indentprefix.  If no messages are spec-
	      ified,  read  the	 current  message.   Message headers currently
	      being  ignored  (by  the	ignore	or  retain  command)  are  not
	      included.	 For MIME multipart messages, only the first printable
	      part is included.

       ~Mmessages
	      Identical to ~m, except all message headers and all  MIME	 parts
	      are included.

       ~p     Print  out the message collected so far, prefaced by the message
	      header fields and followed by the attachment list, if  any.   If
	      the  message  text  is  longer than the screen size, it is piped
	      through the pager.

       ~q     Abort the message being sent, copying the message to  'dead.let-
	      ter' in the user's home directory if save is set.

       ~rfilename
	      Read the named file into the message.

       ~sstring
	      Cause the named string to become the current subject field.

       ~tname . . .
	      Add the given names to the direct recipient list.

       ~v     Invoke an alternate editor (defined by the VISUAL option) on the
	      message collected so far.	 Usually, the alternate editor will be
	      a	 screen editor.	 After the editor is quit, the user may resume
	      appending text to the end of the message.

       ~wfilename
	      Write the message onto the named file.  If the file exists,  the
	      message is appended to it.

       ~x     Same  as	~q,  except  that  the	message	 is  not  saved to the
	      'dead.letter' file.

       ~|command
	      Pipe the message through the command as a filter.	 If  the  com-
	      mand gives no output or terminates abnormally, retain the origi-
	      nal text of the message.	The command fmt(1) is  often  used  as
	      command to rejustify the message.

       ~:mailx-command
	      Execute the given mailx command.	Not all commands, however, are
	      allowed.

       ~_mailx-command
	      Identical to ~:.

       ~~string
	      Insert the string of text in the message prefaced by a single ~.
	      If the escape character has been changed, that character must be
	      doubled in order to send it at the beginning of a line.

   Variable options
       Options are controlled via set and unset commands,  see	their  entries
       for  a  syntax  description.   An option is also set if it is passed to
       mailx as part of the environment (this is not  restricted  to  specific
       variables  as  in the POSIX standard).  A value given in a startup file
       overrides a value imported from the environment.	 Options may be either
       binary,	in  which  case it is only significant to see whether they are
       set or not; or string, in which case the actual value is of interest.

   Binary options
       The binary options include the following:

       allnet Causes only the  local  part  to	be  evaluated  when  comparing
	      addresses.

       append Causes  messages	saved in mbox to be appended to the end rather
	      than prepended.  This should always be set.

       ask or asksub
	      Causes mailx to prompt for the subject of each message sent.  If
	      the  user	 responds with simply a newline, no subject field will
	      be sent.

       askatend
	      Causes the prompts for 'Cc:' and 'Bcc:' lists  to	 appear	 after
	      the message has been edited.

       askattach
	      If  set,	mailx asks for files to attach at the end of each mes-
	      sage.  Responding with a newline indicates  not  to  include  an
	      attachment.

       askcc  Causes the user to be prompted for additional carbon copy recip-
	      ients (at the end of each message if askatend  or	 bsdcompat  is
	      set).   Responding with a newline indicates the user's satisfac-
	      tion with the current list.

       askbcc Causes the user to be prompted for additional blind carbon  copy
	      recipients  (at the end of each message if askatend or bsdcompat
	      is set).	Responding with a newline indicates the user's	satis-
	      faction with the current list.

       asksign
	      Causes the user to be prompted if the message is to be signed at
	      the end of each message.	The  smime-sign	 variable  is  ignored
	      when this variable is set.

       autocollapse
	      Causes  threads to be collapsed automatically when threaded mode
	      is entered (see the collapse command).

       autoinc
	      Same as newmail.

       autoprint
	      Causes the delete command to behave like dp - thus, after delet-
	      ing a message, the next one will be typed automatically.

       autothread
	      Causes  threaded	mode  (see  the	 thread command) to be entered
	      automatically when a folder is opened.

       bang   Enables the substitution of '!'  by the  contents	 of  the  last
	      command line in shell escapes.

       bsdannounce
	      Causes  automatic	 display of a header summary after executing a
	      folder command.

       bsdcompat
	      Sets some cosmetical features to traditional BSD style; has  the
	      same  affect  as setting 'askatend' and all other variables pre-
	      fixed with 'bsd', setting	 prompt	 to  '& ',  and	 changing  the
	      default pager to more.

       bsdflags
	      Changes the letters printed in the first column of a header sum-
	      mary to traditional BSD style.

       bsdheadline
	      Changes the display of columns in a  header  summary  to	tradi-
	      tional BSD style.

       bsdmsgs
	      Changes some informational messages to traditional BSD style.

       bsdorder
	      Causes  the  'Subject:'  field  to  appear immediately after the
	      'To:' field in message headers and with the ~h tilde command.

       bsdset Changes the output format of the set command to traditional  BSD
	      style.

       chained-junk-tokens
	      Normally,	 the  Bayesian	junk mail filter bases its classifica-
	      tions on single word tokens extracted from  messages.   If  this
	      option  is  set, adjacent words are combined to pairs, which are
	      then used as additional tokens.  This usually improves the accu-
	      racy  of	the  filter, but also increases the junk mail database
	      five- to tenfold.

       datefield
	      The date in a header summary is normally the date of the mailbox
	      'From '  line of the message.  If this variable is set, the date
	      as given in the 'Date:' header field is used, converted to local
	      time.

       debug  Prints  debugging	 messages  and disables the actual delivery of
	      messages.	 Unlike verbose, this option  is  intended  for	 mailx
	      development only.

       disconnected
	      When  an	IMAP  mailbox is selected and this variable is set, no
	      connection  to  the  server  is  initiated.   Instead,  data  is
	      obtained	from the local cache (see imap-cache).	Mailboxes that
	      are not present in the cache and	messages  that	have  not  yet
	      entirely	been  fetched  from  the  server are not available; to
	      fetch all messages in a mailbox at once,	the  command  'copy  *
	      /dev/null' can be used while still in online mode.  Changes that
	      are made to IMAP mailboxes in disconnected mode are  queued  and
	      committed	 later	when  a connection to that server is opened in
	      online mode.  This procedure is not completely reliable since it
	      cannot  be guaranteed that the IMAP unique identifiers (UIDs) on
	      the server still match the ones in the cache at that time.  Data
	      is saved to 'dead.letter' when this problem occurs.

       disconnected-user@host
	      The  specified  account  is handled as described for the discon-
	      nected variable above, but other accounts are not affected.

       dot    The binary option dot causes mailx to interpret a	 period	 alone
	      on a line as the terminator of a message the user is sending.

       editheaders
	      When  a  message	is  edited while being composed, its header is
	      included in the editable	text.	'To:',	'Cc:',	'Bcc:',	 'Sub-
	      ject:',  'From:',	 'Reply-To:',  'Sender:',  and 'Organization:'
	      fields are accepted within the header, other fields are ignored.

       emptybox
	      If  set, an empty mailbox file is not removed.  This may improve
	      the interoperability with other mail user agents	when  using  a
	      common folder directory.

       emptystart
	      If  the  mailbox	is  empty,  mailx normally prints 'No mail for
	      user' and exits immediately.   If	 this  option  is  set,	 mailx
	      starts even with an empty mailbox.

       expandaddr
	      Causes mailx to expand message recipient addresses, as explained
	      in the section, Recipient address specifications.

       flipr  Exchanges the Respond with the respond commands and  vice-versa.

       forward-as-attachment
	      Original messages are normally sent as inline text with the for-
	      ward command, and only the first part of a multipart message  is
	      included.	  With	this  option,  messages	 are sent as MIME mes-
	      sage/rfc822 attachments, and all of their	 parts	are  included.
	      The  fwdignore  and  fwdretain options are ignored when the for-
	      ward-as-attachment option is set.

       fullnames
	      When replying to a message, mailx normally removes  the  comment
	      parts  of	 email addresses, which by convention contain the full
	      names of the recipients.	If this variable is set,  such	strip-
	      ping is not performed, and comments are retained.

       header Causes  the  header  summary  to be written at startup and after
	      commands that affect the number of messages or the order of mes-
	      sages in the current folder; enabled by default.

       hold   This  option  is	used to hold messages in the system mailbox by
	      default.

       ignore Causes interrupt signals from the terminal  to  be  ignored  and
	      echoed as @'s.

       ignoreeof
	      An  option  related to dot is ignoreeof which makes mailx refuse
	      to accept a control-d as the end of a message.   Ignoreeof  also
	      applies to mailx command mode.

       imap-use-starttls
	      Causes  mailx to issue a STARTTLS command to make an unencrypted
	      IMAP session SSL/TLS encrypted.  This functionality is not  sup-
	      ported by all servers, and is not used if the session is already
	      encrypted by the IMAPS method.

       imap-use-starttls-user@host
	      Activates imap-use-starttls for a specific account.

       keep   This option causes mailx to truncate the user's  system  mailbox
	      instead  of deleting it when it is empty.	 This should always be
	      set, since it prevents malicious users from creating  fake  mail
	      folders in a world-writable spool directory.

       keepsave
	      When a message is saved, it is usually discarded from the origi-
	      nating folder when mailx is quit.	 Setting  this	option	causes
	      all saved message to be retained.

       markanswered
	      When  a  message	is  replied to and this variable is set, it is
	      marked as having been answered.	This  mark  has	 no  technical
	      meaning in the mail system; it just causes messages to be marked
	      in the header summary, and makes them specially addressable.

       metoo  Usually, when a group is expanded that contains the sender,  the
	      sender  is  removed  from	 the  expansion.   Setting this option
	      causes the sender to be included in the group.

       newmail
	      Checks for new mail in the current folder each time  the	prompt
	      is  printed.   For IMAP mailboxes, the server is then polled for
	      new mail, which may result in delayed operation if  the  connec-
	      tion to the server is slow.  A maildir folder must be re-scanned
	      to determine if new mail has arrived.

	      If this variable is set to the special  value  nopoll,  an  IMAP
	      server  is  not  actively	 asked	for new mail, but new mail may
	      still be detected and announced with any other IMAP command that
	      is sent to the server.  A maildir folder is not scanned then.

	      In  any  case, the IMAP server may send notifications about mes-
	      sages that have been deleted on the server by another process or
	      client.	In this case, 'Expunged n messages' is printed regard-
	      less of this variable, and message numbers may have changed.

       noheader
	      Setting the option noheader is the same as giving the -N flag on
	      the command line.

       outfolder
	      Causes the filename given in the record variable and the sender-
	      based filenames for the Copy and Save commands to be interpreted
	      relative	to  the	 directory given in the folder variable rather
	      than to the current directory unless it is an absolute pathname.

       page   If  set, each message the pipe command prints out is followed by
	      a formfeed character.

       piperaw
	      Send messages to the pipe command without	 performing  MIME  and
	      character set conversions.

       pop3-use-apop
	      If  this variable is set, the APOP authentication method is used
	      when a connection to a POP3 server is initiated.	The  advantage
	      of  this	method over the usual USER/PASS authentication is that
	      the password is not sent over the network in  clear  text.   The
	      connection  fails	 if  the server does not support the APOP com-
	      mand.

       pop3-use-apop-user@host
	      Enables pop3-use-apop for a specific account.

       pop3-use-starttls
	      Causes mailx to issue a STLS command to make an unencrypted POP3
	      session  SSL/TLS encrypted.  This functionality is not supported
	      by all servers, and is  not  used	 if  the  session  is  already
	      encrypted by the POP3S method.

       pop3-use-starttls-user@host
	      Activates pop3-use-starttls for a specific account.

       print-all-chars
	      This  option  causes  all characters to be considered printable.
	      It is only effective if given in	a  startup  file.   With  this
	      option  set,  some  character  sequences in messages may put the
	      user's terminal in an undefined state when  printed;  it	should
	      only be used as a last resort if no working system locale can be
	      found.

       print-alternatives
	      When a MIME message part of type multipart/alternative  is  dis-
	      played and it contains a subpart of type text/plain, other parts
	      are normally discarded.  Setting this variable causes  all  sub-
	      parts  to	 be  displayed, just as if the surrounding part was of
	      type multipart/mixed.

       quiet  Suppresses the printing of the version when first invoked.

       record-resent
	      If both this variable and	 the  record  variable	are  set,  the
	      resend and Resend commands save messages to the record folder as
	      it is normally only done for newly composed messages.

       reply-in-same-charset
	      If this variable is set, mailx first tries to use the same char-
	      acter  set  of the original message for replies.	If this fails,
	      the sendcharsets variable is evaluated as usual.

       Replyall
	      Reverses the sense of reply and Reply commands.

       save   When the user aborts a message with two RUBOUT (interrupt	 char-
	      acters)  mailx  copies the partial letter to the file 'dead.let-
	      ter' in the home directory.  This option is set by default.

       searchheaders
	      If this option is set, then a message-list specifier in the form
	      '/x:y'  will expand to all messages containing the substring 'y'
	      in the header field 'x'.	The string search is case insensitive.

       sendwait
	      When sending a message, wait until the mail transfer agent exits
	      before accepting further commands.  If the mail  transfer	 agent
	      returns  a  non-zero  exit status, the exit status of mailx will
	      also be non-zero.

       showlast
	      Setting this option causes mailx to start at  the	 last  message
	      instead of the first one when opening a mail folder.

       showname
	      Causes  mailx to use the sender's real name instead of the plain
	      address in the header field summary and  in  message  specifica-
	      tions.

       showto Causes  the  recipient  of the message to be shown in the header
	      summary if the message was sent by the user.

       skipemptybody
	      If an outgoing message does not contain any text in its first or
	      only  message  part, do not send it but discard it silently (see
	      also the -E option).

       smime-force-encryption
	      Causes mailx to refuse sending unencrypted messages.

       smime-sign
	      If this variable is set, outgoing	 messages  are	S/MIME	signed
	      with the user's private key.  Signing a message enables a recip-
	      ient to verify that the sender used a  valid  certificate,  that
	      the  email  addresses in the certificate match those in the mes-
	      sage header, and that the message content has not been  altered.
	      It  does not change the message text, and people will be able to
	      read the message as usual.

       smime-no-default-ca
	      Do not load the  default	CA  locations  when  verifying	S/MIME
	      signed  messages.	  Only	applicable  if S/MIME support is built
	      using OpenSSL.

       smtp-use-starttls
	      Causes mailx to issue a STARTTLS command to make an SMTP session
	      SSL/TLS  encrypted.   Not	 all  servers  support	this  command;
	      because of common implementation defects, it cannot be automati-
	      cally determined whether a server supports it or not.

       ssl-no-default-ca
	      Do  not  load  the default CA locations to verify SSL/TLS server
	      certificates.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using
	      OpenSSL.

       ssl-v2-allow
	      Accept  SSLv2  connections.   These  are	normally  not  allowed
	      because this protocol version is insecure.

       stealthmua
	      Inhibits the generation of the 'Message-Id:'  and	 'User-Agent:'
	      header  fields  that include obvious references to mailx.	 There
	      are two pitfalls associated with this: First, the message id  of
	      outgoing	messages  is not known anymore.	 Second, an expert may
	      still use the remaining information in the header to track  down
	      the originating mail user agent.

       verbose
	      Setting  the  option verbose is the same as using the -v flag on
	      the command line.	 When mailx runs in verbose mode,  details  of
	      the actual message delivery and protocol conversations for IMAP,
	      POP3, and SMTP, as well as of other internal processes, are dis-
	      played on the user's terminal, This is sometimes useful to debug
	      problems.	 Mailx prints all data that is sent to remote  servers
	      in  clear	 texts,	 including  passwords, so care should be taken
	      that no unauthorized option can view the screen if  this	option
	      is enabled.

       writebackedited
	      If  this	variable  is  set, messages modified using the edit or
	      visual commands are written back to the current folder  when  it
	      is  quit.	  This	is  only possible for writable folders in mbox
	      format.  Setting this variable also disables MIME	 decoding  and
	      decryption for the editing commands.

   String Options
       The string options include the following:

       attrlist
	      A sequence of characters to print in the 'attribute' column of a
	      header summary, each for one type of messages in	the  following
	      order:  new,  unread but old, new but read, read and old, saved,
	      preserved, mboxed, flagged, answered, draft, killed, start of  a
	      collapsed thread, collapsed, classified as junk.	The default is
	      'NUROSPMFATK+-J', or 'NU	*HMFATK+-J' if bsdflags or  the	 SYSV3
	      environment variable are set.

       autobcc
	      Specifies	 a  list of recipients to which a blind carbon copy of
	      each outgoing message will be sent automatically.

       autocc Specifies a list of recipients to which a carbon	copy  of  each
	      outgoing message will be sent automatically.

       autosort
	      Causes sorted mode (see the sort command) to be entered automat-
	      ically with the value of this option as sorting  method  when  a
	      folder is opened.

       cmd    The default value for the pipe command.

       crt    The  valued  option  crt is used as a threshold to determine how
	      long a message must be before PAGER is used to read it.  If  crt
	      is  set  without a value, then the height of the terminal screen
	      stored in the system is  used  to	 compute  the  threshold  (see
	      stty(1)).

       DEAD   The  name	 of the file to use for saving aborted messages.  This
	      defaults to 'dead.letter' in the user's home directory.

       EDITOR Pathname of the text editor to use in the edit  command  and  ~e
	      escape.  If not defined, then a default editor is used.

       encoding
	      The  default  MIME encoding to use in outgoing text messages and
	      message parts.  Valid values are 8bit or quoted-printable.   The
	      default  is 8bit.	 In case the mail transfer system is not ESMTP
	      compliant, quoted-printable should be used instead.  If there is
	      no need to encode a message, 7bit transfer mode is used, without
	      regard to the value of this variable.   Binary  data  is	always
	      encoded in base64 mode.

       escape If defined, the first character of this option gives the charac-
	      ter to use in the place of ~ to denote escapes.

       folder The name of the directory to use for  storing  folders  of  mes-
	      sages.   All  folder  names  that	 begin with '+' refer to files
	      below that directory.  If the directory name begins with a  '/',
	      mailx  considers	it  to be an absolute pathname; otherwise, the
	      folder directory is found relative to the user's home directory.

	      The  directory name may also refer to an IMAP account; any names
	      that begin with  '+'  then  refer	 to  IMAP  mailboxes  on  that
	      account.	An IMAP folder is normally given in the form

		  imaps://mylogin@imap.myisp.example

	      In this case, the '+' and '@' prefixes for folder names have the
	      same effect (see the folder command).

	      Some IMAP servers do not accept the creation of mailboxes in the
	      hierarchy base; they require that they are created as subfolders
	      of 'INBOX'.  With such servers, a folder name of the form

		  imaps://mylogin@imap.myisp.example/INBOX.

	      should be used (the last character  is  the  server's  hierarchy
	      delimiter).   Folder  names  prefixed  by '+' will then refer to
	      folders below 'INBOX', while folder names prefixed by '@'	 refer
	      to  folders  below  the  hierarchy base.	See the imap namespace
	      command for a method to detect the appropriate prefix and delim-
	      iter.

       folder-hook
	      When a folder is opened and this variable is set, the macro cor-
	      responding to the value of this variable is executed.  The macro
	      is  also	invoked	 when  new mail arrives, but message lists for
	      commands executed from the macro only include newly arrived mes-
	      sages then.

       folder-hook-fullname
	      When  a folder named fullname is opened, the macro corresponding
	      to the value of this variable is executed.  Unlike other	folder
	      specifications,  the  fully  expanded  name of a folder, without
	      metacharacters, is used to avoid ambiguities.  The macro	speci-
	      fied with folder-hook is not executed if this variable is effec-
	      tive for a folder (unless it is explicitly  invoked  within  the
	      called macro).

       from   The  address  (or	 a  list of addresses) to put into the 'From:'
	      field of the message header.  If replying to  a  message,	 these
	      addresses	 are  handled  as if they were in the alternates list.
	      If the machine's hostname is not	valid  at  the	Internet  (for
	      example  at  a dialup machine), either this variable or hostname
	      have to be set to get correct Message-ID header fields.  If from
	      contains more than one address, the sender variable must also be
	      set.

       fwdheading
	      The string to print before the text of a message with  the  for-
	      ward command (unless the forward-as-attachment variable is set).
	      Defaults to ''-------- Original Message --------'' if unset.  If
	      it is set to the empty string, no heading is printed.

       headline
	      A format string to use for the header summary, similar to printf
	      formats.	A '%' character introduces a format specifier.	It may
	      be  followed  by	a  number  indicating the field width.	If the
	      field is a number, the width may be  negative,  which  indicates
	      that it is to be left-aligned.  Valid format specifiers are:

		  %a	Message attributes.
		  %c	The score of the message.
		  %d	The date when the message was received.
		  %e	The indenting level in threaded mode.
		  %f	The address of the message sender.
		  %i	The message thread structure.
		  %l	The number of lines of the message.
		  %m	Message number.
		  %o	The number of octets (bytes) in the message.
		  %s	Message subject (if any).
		  %S	Message subject (if any) in double quotes.
		  %t	The position in threaded/sorted order.
		  %>	A '>' for the current message, otherwise ' '.
		  %<	A '<' for the current message, otherwise ' '.
		  %%	A '%' character.

	      The     default	 is    '%>%a%m %18f %16d %4l/%-5o %i%s',    or
	      '%>%a%m %20f  %16d %3l/%-5o %i%S' if bsdcompat is set.

       hostname
	      Use this string  as  hostname  when  expanding  local  addresses
	      instead  of the value obtained from uname(2) and getaddrinfo(3).

       imap-auth
	      Sets the IMAP authentication method.  Valid values  are  'login'
	      for  the	usual  password-based  authentication  (the  default),
	      'cram-md5', which is a password-based authentication  that  does
	      not  send the password over the network in clear text, and 'gss-
	      api' for GSSAPI-based authentication.

       imap-auth-user@host
	      Sets the IMAP authentication method for a specific account.

       imap-cache
	      Enables caching of IMAP mailboxes.  The value of	this  variable
	      must point to a directory that is either existent or can be cre-
	      ated by mailx.  All contents of the  cache  can  be  deleted  by
	      mailx  at	 any  time;  it	 is not safe to make assumptions about
	      them.

       imap-keepalive
	      IMAP servers may close the connection after a period of inactiv-
	      ity;  the	 standard requires this to be at least 30 minutes, but
	      practical experience may	vary.	Setting	 this  variable	 to  a
	      numeric  value  greater  than 0 causes a NOOP command to be sent
	      each value seconds if no other operation is performed.

       imap-list-depth
	      When retrieving the list of folders on an IMAP server, the fold-
	      ers  command stops after it has reached a certain depth to avoid
	      possible infinite loops.	The value of this  variable  sets  the
	      maximum depth allowed.  The default is 2.	 If the folder separa-
	      tor on the current IMAP server is a slash '/', this variable has
	      no  effect, and the folders command does not descend to subfold-
	      ers.

       indentprefix
	      String used by the '~m' and '~M' tilde escapes and by the	 quote
	      option  for indenting messages, in place of the normal tab char-
	      acter (^I).  Be sure to quote the value if it contains spaces or
	      tabs.

       junkdb The  location  of the junk mail database.	 The string is treated
	      like a folder name, as described for the folder command.

	      The files in the junk mail database are normally stored in  com-
	      press(1) format for saving space.	 If processing time is consid-
	      ered more important, uncompress(1) can be used to store them  in
	      plain  form.  Mailx will then work using the uncompressed files.

       LISTER Pathname of the directory lister to use in the  folders  command
	      when operating on local mailboxes.  Default is /bin/ls.

       MAIL   Is  used	as  the	 user's mailbox, if set.  Otherwise, a system-
	      dependent default is used.  Can be a protocol:// string (see the
	      folder command for more information).

       MAILX_HEAD
	      A	 string	 to  put  at  the  beginning of each new message.  The
	      escape sequences '\t' (tabulator) and '\n' (newline) are	under-
	      stood.

       MAILX_TAIL
	      A	 string	 to  put  at  the end of each new message.  The escape
	      sequences '\t' (tabulator) and '\n' (newline) are understood.

       maximum-unencoded-line-length
	      Messages that contain lines longer than the value of this	 vari-
	      able  are	 encoded in quoted-printable even if they contain only
	      ASCII characters.	 The maximum effective value is 950.   If  set
	      to  0,  all ASCII text messages are encoded in quoted-printable.
	      S/MIME signed messages are always	 encoded  in  quoted-printable
	      regardless of the value of this variable.

       MBOX   The name of the mbox file.  It can be the name of a folder.  The
	      default is 'mbox' in the user's home directory.

       NAIL_EXTRA_RC
	      The name of an optional startup file to be read after ~/.mailrc.
	      This variable is ignored if it is imported from the environment;
	      it has an effect only if it is set in /etc/mail.rc or  ~/.mailrc
	      to    allow    bypassing	  the	configuration	with   e.   g.
	      'MAILRC=/dev/null'.  Use this file for  commands	that  are  not
	      understood by other mailx implementations.

       newfolders
	      If  this	variable  has  the  value maildir, newly created local
	      folders will be in maildir format.

       nss-config-dir
	      A directory that contains the files certN.db  to	retrieve  cer-
	      tificates,  keyN.db  to  retrieve	 private  keys, and secmod.db,
	      where N is a  digit.   These  are	 usually  taken	 from  Mozilla
	      installations,	so    an    appropriate	   value    might   be
	      '~/.mozilla/firefox/default.clm'.	 Mailx opens these files read-
	      only  and does not modify them.  However, if the files are modi-
	      fied by Mozilla while mailx is running, it  will	print  a  'Bad
	      database'	 message.   It	may  be	 necessary to create copies of
	      these files that are  exclusively	 used  by  mailx  then.	  Only
	      applicable  if S/MIME and SSL/TLS support is built using Network
	      Security Services (NSS).

       ORGANIZATION
	      The value to put into the 'Organization:' field of  the  message
	      header.

       PAGER  Pathname	of  the program to use in the more command or when crt
	      variable is set.	The default paginator pg(1) or, in BSD compat-
	      ibility mode, more(1) is used if this option is not defined.

       password-user@host
	      Set  the	password for user when connecting to host.  If no such
	      variable is defined for a host, the user will  be	 asked	for  a
	      password	on  standard input.  Specifying passwords in a startup
	      file is generally a security risk, the file should  be  readable
	      by the invoking user only.

       pipe-content/subcontent
	      When a MIME message part of content/subcontent type is displayed
	      or it is replied to, its text is filtered through the  value  of
	      this variable interpreted as a shell command.  Special care must
	      be taken when using such commands as mail viruses	 may  be  dis-
	      tributed	by  this  method; if messages of type application/x-sh
	      were filtered through the shell, for example, a  message	sender
	      could  easily execute arbitrary code on the system mailx is run-
	      ning on.

       pop3-keepalive
	      POP3 servers may close the connection after a period of inactiv-
	      ity;  the	 standard requires this to be at least 10 minutes, but
	      practical experience may	vary.	Setting	 this  variable	 to  a
	      numeric  value  greater  than 0 causes a NOOP command to be sent
	      each value seconds if no other operation is performed.

       prompt The string printed when a	 command  is  accepted.	  Defaults  to
	      '? ', or to '& ' if the bsdcompat variable is set.

       quote  If  set,	mailx starts a replying message with the original mes-
	      sage prefixed by the value of the variable  indentprefix.	  Nor-
	      mally,  a	 heading  consisting  of  'Fromheaderfield  wrote:' is
	      printed before  the  quotation.	If  the	 string	 noheading  is
	      assigned to the quote variable, this heading is omitted.	If the
	      string  headers  is  assigned,  the  headers  selected  by   the
	      ignore/retain  commands are printed above the message body, thus
	      quote acts like an automatic ~m command  then.   If  the	string
	      allheaders  is  assigned, all headers are printed above the mes-
	      sage body, and all MIME parts are included, thus quote acts like
	      an automatic ~M command then.

       record If  defined, gives the pathname of the folder used to record all
	      outgoing mail.  If not defined, then outgoing  mail  is  not  so
	      saved.   When  saving  to	 this folder fails, the message is not
	      sent but saved to the 'dead.letter' file instead.

       replyto
	      A list of addresses to put into the  'Reply-To:'	field  of  the
	      message  header.	 If  replying to a message, such addresses are
	      handled as if they were in the alternates list.

       screen When mailx initially prints the message headers,	it  determines
	      the  number  to  print  by looking at the speed of the terminal.
	      The faster the terminal, the more it prints.  This option	 over-
	      rides  this  calculation	and specifies how many message headers
	      are printed.  This number is also used for scrolling with the  z
	      command.

       sendcharsets
	      A	 comma-separated  list of character set names that can be used
	      in Internet mail.	 When a message that contains  characters  not
	      representable  in	 US-ASCII is prepared for sending, mailx tries
	      to convert its text to each of the given character sets in order
	      and uses the first appropriate one.  The default is 'utf-8'.

	      Character	 sets  assigned	 to this variable should be ordered in
	      ascending complexity.  That is, the list should start with  e.g.
	      'iso-8859-1'  for	 compatibility	with older mail clients, might
	      contain some other language-specific character sets, and	should
	      end with 'utf-8' to handle messages that combine texts in multi-
	      ple languages.

       sender An address that is put into the 'Sender:' field of outgoing mes-
	      sages.   This  field needs not normally be present.  It is, how-
	      ever, required if the  'From:'  field  contains  more  than  one
	      address.	 It  can  also	be used to indicate that a message was
	      sent on behalf of somebody other; in this case,  'From:'	should
	      contain  the  address of the person that took responsibility for
	      the message, and 'Sender:' should contain	 the  address  of  the
	      person  that  actually  sent the message.	 The sender address is
	      handled as if it were in the alternates list.

       sendmail
	      To use an alternate mail delivery system, set this option to the
	      full  pathname  of the program to use.  This should be used with
	      care.

       SHELL  Pathname of the shell to use in the ! command and the ~! escape.
	      A default shell is used if this option is not defined.

       Sign   A string for use with the ~A command.

       sign   A string for use with the ~a command.

       signature
	      Must  correspond	to  the name of a readable file if set.
	      The file's content is then appended  to  each  singlepart
	      message  and to the first part of each multipart message.
	      Be warned that there is no possibility to edit the signa-
	      ture for an individual message.

       smime-ca-dir
	      Specifies	 a directory with CA certificates for verifica-
	      tion of S/MIME signed messages.  The format is  the  same
	      as  described  in SSL_CTX_load_verify_locations(3).  Only
	      applicable if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-ca-file
	      Specifies a file with CA certificates for verification of
	      S/MIME  signed  messages.	  The  format  is  the	same as
	      described	 in   SSL_CTX_load_verify_locations(3).	   Only
	      applicable if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-cipher-user@host
	      Specifies	  a   cipher  to  use  when  generating	 S/MIME
	      encrypted messages  for  user@host.   Valid  ciphers  are
	      rc2-40 (RC2 with 40 bits), rc2-64 (RC2 with 64 bits), des
	      (DES, 56 bits) and des-ede3 (3DES,  112/168  bits).   The
	      default  is 3DES.	 It is not recommended to use the other
	      ciphers unless a recipient's client is actually unable to
	      handle  3DES  since they are comparatively weak; but even
	      so, the recipient should upgrade his software in	prefer-
	      ence.

       smime-crl-file
	      Specifies a file that contains a CRL in PEM format to use
	      when  verifying  S/MIME  messages.   Only	 applicable  if
	      S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-crl-dir
	      Specifies	 a  directory  that contains files with CRLs in
	      PEM format to use when verifying S/MIME  messages.   Only
	      applicable if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-encrypt-user@host
	      If  this	variable  is  set,  messages  to  user@host are
	      encrypted before sending.	 If  S/MIME  support  is  built
	      using  OpenSSL,  the value of the variable must be set to
	      the name of a file that contains	a  certificate	in  PEM
	      format.	If S/MIME support is built using NSS, the value
	      of this variable is ignored, but if multiple certificates
	      for user@host are available, the smime-nickname-user@host
	      variable should be set.  Otherwise a certificate for  the
	      recipient is automatically retrieved from the certificate
	      database, if possible.

	      If a message is sent to multiple recipients, each of them
	      for  whom a corresponding variable is set will receive an
	      individually encrypted  message;	other  recipients  will
	      continue	to receive the message in plain text unless the
	      smime-force-encryption variable is  set.	 It  is	 recom-
	      mended  to  sign encrypted messages, i.e. to also set the
	      smime-sign variable.

       smime-nickname-user@host
	      Specifies the nickname of a certificate to be  used  when
	      encrypting  messages  for user@host .  Only applicable if
	      S/MIME support is built using NSS.

       smime-sign-cert
	      Points to a file in PEM format that contains  the	 user's
	      private  key  as	well as his certificate.  Both are used
	      with S/MIME for signing and  decrypting  messages.   Only
	      applicable if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-sign-cert-user@host
	      Overrides	 smime-sign-cert  for  the  specific addresses.
	      When signing messages and the value of the from  variable
	      is  set  to  user@host,  the specific file is used.  When
	      decrypting messages, their recipient fields (To: and Cc:)
	      are  searched  for addresses for which such a variable is
	      set.  Mailx always uses the first address	 that  matches,
	      so  if  the  same message is sent to more than one of the
	      user's addresses using different encryption keys, decryp-
	      tion  might  fail.   Only applicable if S/MIME support is
	      built using OpenSSL.

       smime-sign-nickname
	      Specifies that the named certificate be used for	signing
	      mail.  If this variable is not set, but a single certifi-
	      cate matching the current from address is	 found	in  the
	      database,	 that one is used automatically.  Only applica-
	      ble if S/MIME support is built using NSS.

       smime-sign-nickname-user@host
	      Overrides smime-sign-nickname  for  a  specific  address.
	      Only applicable if S/MIME support is built using NSS.

       smtp   Normally,	 mailx invokes sendmail(8) directly to transfer
	      messages.	 If the smtp variable is set, a SMTP connection
	      to  the server specified by the value of this variable is
	      used instead.  If the SMTP server does not use the  stan-
	      dard port, a value of server:port can be given, with port
	      as a name or as a number.

	      There are two possible methods to get  SSL/TLS  encrypted
	      SMTP sessions: First, the STARTTLS command can be used to
	      encrypt a session after it has been initiated, but before
	      any    user-related    data    has    been    sent;   see
	      smtp-use-starttls above.	 Second,  some	servers	 accept
	      sessions that are encrypted from their beginning on. This
	      mode is configured by assigning smtps://server[:port]  to
	      the smtp variable.

	      The  SMTP transfer is executed in a child process; unless
	      either the sendwait or the verbose variable is set,  this
	      process  runs asynchronously.  If it receives a TERM sig-
	      nal, it will abort and save the message to the 'dead.let-
	      ter' file.

       smtp-auth
	      Sets  the SMTP authentication method.  If set to 'login',
	      or if unset and smtp-auth-user  is  set,	AUTH  LOGIN  is
	      used.   If  set  to 'cram-md5', AUTH CRAM-MD5 is used; if
	      set to 'plain', AUTH PLAIN is used.  Otherwise,  no  SMTP
	      authentication is performed.

       smtp-auth-user@host
	      Overrides	  smtp-auth   for  specific  values  of	 sender
	      addresses, depending on the from variable.

       smtp-auth-password
	      Sets the global password for SMTP AUTH.	Both  user  and
	      password	have  to be given for AUTH LOGIN and AUTH CRAM-
	      MD5.

       smtp-auth-password-user@host
	      Overrides	 smtp-auth-password  for  specific  values   of
	      sender addresses, depending on the from variable.

       smtp-auth-user
	      Sets  the	 global user name for SMTP AUTH.  Both user and
	      password have to be given for AUTH LOGIN and  AUTH  CRAM-
	      MD5.

	      If this variable is set but neither smtp-auth-password or
	      a matching  smtp-auth-password-user@host	can  be	 found,
	      mailx will as for a password on the user's terminal.

       smtp-auth-user-user@host
	      Overrides	 smtp-auth-user	 for  specific values of sender
	      addresses, depending on the from variable.

       ssl-ca-dir
	      Specifies a directory with CA certificates for  verifica-
	      tion     of    SSL/TLS	server	  certificates.	    See
	      SSL_CTX_load_verify_locations(3)	for  more  information.
	      Only   applicable	 if  SSL/TLS  support  is  built  using
	      OpenSSL.

       ssl-ca-file
	      Specifies a file with CA certificates for verification of
	      SSL/TLS	server	 certificates.	 See  SSL_CTX_load_ver-
	      ify_locations(3) for more information.   Only  applicable
	      if SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-cert
	      Sets  the	 file  name  for  a  SSL/TLS client certificate
	      required by some servers.	  Only	applicable  if	SSL/TLS
	      support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-cert-user@host
	      Sets  an	account-specific file name for a SSL/TLS client
	      certificate required by some servers.  Overrides ssl-cert
	      for  the	specified  account.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS
	      support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-cipher-list
	      Specifies a list of ciphers for SSL/TLS connections.  See
	      ciphers(1)  for  more  information.   Only  applicable if
	      SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-crl-file
	      Specifies a file that contains a CRL in PEM format to use
	      when  verifying SSL/TLS server certificates.  Only appli-
	      cable if SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-crl-dir
	      Specifies a directory that contains files	 with  CRLs  in
	      PEM   format   to	  use  when  verifying	SSL/TLS	 server
	      certificates.  Only  applicable  if  SSL/TLS  support  is
	      built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-key
	      Sets  the	 file  name  for  the  private key of a SSL/TLS
	      client certificate.  If unset, the name of  the  certifi-
	      cate  file  is  used.   The file is expected to be in PEM
	      format.  Only applicable	if  SSL/TLS  support  is  built
	      using OpenSSL.

       ssl-key-user@host
	      Sets an account-specific file name for the private key of
	      a SSL/TLS client certificate.  Overrides ssl-key for  the
	      specified account.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is
	      built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-method
	      Selects a SSL/TLS	 protocol  version;  valid  values  are
	      'ssl2',  'ssl3',	and  'tls1'.   If  unset, the method is
	      selected automatically, if possible.

       ssl-method-user@host
	      Overrides ssl-method for a specific account.

       ssl-rand-egd
	      Gives the pathname  to  an  entropy  daemon  socket,  see
	      RAND_egd(3).

       ssl-rand-file
	      Gives  the  pathname  to	a  file	 with entropy data, see
	      RAND_load_file(3).   If  the  file  is  a	 regular   file
	      writable	by the invoking user, new data is written to it
	      after it has been loaded.	  Only	applicable  if	SSL/TLS
	      support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-verify
	      Sets the action to be performed if an error occurs during
	      SSL/TLS server certificate validation.  Valid values  are
	      'strict'	(fail  and close connection immediately), 'ask'
	      (ask whether  to	continue  on  standard	input),	 'warn'
	      (print  a warning and continue), 'ignore' (do not perform
	      validation).  The default is 'ask'.

       ssl-verify-user@host
	      Overrides ssl-verify for a specific account.

       toplines
	      If defined, gives the number of lines of a message to  be
	      printed  out  with  the  top command; normally, the first
	      five lines are printed.

       ttycharset
	      The character set of  the	 terminal  mailx  operates  on.
	      There  is	 normally  no  need  to set this variable since
	      mailx can determine this automatically by looking at  the
	      LC_CTYPE	locale	setting; if this succeeds, the value is
	      assigned at startup and will be displayed by the set com-
	      mand.   Note that this is not necessarily a character set
	      name that can be used in Internet messages.

       VISUAL Pathname of the text editor to use in the visual	command
	      and ~v escape.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       Besides	the variables described above, mailx uses the following
       environment strings:

       HOME   The user's home directory.

       LANG, LC_ALL, LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES
	      See locale(7).

       MAILRC Is used as startup file  instead	of  ~/.mailrc  if  set.
	      When  mailx scripts are invoked on behalf of other users,
	      this variable should be set to '/dev/null' to avoid side-
	      effects from reading their configuration files.

       NAILRC If this variable is set and MAILRC is not set, it is read
	      as startup file.

       SYSV3  Changes the letters printed in  the  first  column  of  a
	      header summary.

       TMPDIR Used as directory for temporary files instead of /tmp, if
	      set.

FILES
       ~/.mailrc
	      File giving initial commands.

       /etc/mail.rc
	      System wide initialization file.

       ~/.mime.types
	      Personal MIME types.

       /etc/mime.types
	      System wide MIME types.

EXAMPLES
   Getting started
       The mailx command has two distinct usages, according to	whether
       one  wants  to send or receive mail.  Sending mail is simple: to
       send  a	message	 to  a	user  whose  email  address  is,   say,
       <bill@host.example>, use the shell command:

	   $ mailx bill@host.example

       then  type  your	 message.   Mailx will prompt you for a message
       subject first; after that, lines typed by you form the  body  of
       the message.  When you reach the end of the message, type an EOT
       (control-d) at the beginning of a line, which will  cause  mailx
       to echo 'EOT' and return you to the shell.

       If,  while  you are composing the message you decide that you do
       not wish to send it after all, you can abort the letter	with  a
       RUBOUT.	 Typing	 a single RUBOUT causes mailx to print '(Inter-
       rupt -- one more to  kill  letter)'.   Typing  a	 second	 RUBOUT
       causes  mailx to save your partial letter on the file 'dead.let-
       ter' in your home directory and abort the letter.  Once you have
       sent  mail  to  someone,	 there is no way to undo the act, so be
       careful.

       If you want to send the same message to	several	 other	people,
       you can list their email addresses on the command line.	Thus,

	   $ mailx sam@workstation.example bob@server.example
	   Subject: Fees
	   Tuition fees are due next Friday.  Don't forget!
	   <Control-d>
	   EOT
	   $

       will   send  the	 reminder  to  <sam@workstation.example>.   and
       <bob@server.example>.

       To read your mail, simply type

	   $ mailx

       Mailx will respond by typing its version	 number	 and  date  and
       then listing the messages you have waiting.  Then it will type a
       prompt and await your command.  The messages are	 assigned  num-
       bers  starting  with 1--you refer to the messages with these num-
       bers.  Mailx keeps track of which messages are  new  (have  been
       sent  since you last read your mail) and read (have been read by
       you).  New messages have an N next to them in the header listing
       and old, but unread messages have a U next to them.  Mailx keeps
       track of new/old and read/unread messages by  putting  a	 header
       field called Status into your messages.

       To  look	 at a specific message, use the type command, which may
       be abbreviated to simply t .  For example, if you had  the  fol-
       lowing messages:

	   O 1 drfoo@myhost.example Wed Sep  1 19:52  18/631 "Fees"
	   O 2 sam@friends.example  Thu Sep  2 00:08  30/895

       you could examine the first message by giving the command:

	   type 1

       which might cause to respond with, for example:

	   Message  1:
	   From drfoo@myhost.example Wed Sep  1 19:52:25 2004
	   Subject: Fees
	   Status: R

	   Tuition fees are due next Wednesday.	 Don't forget!

       Many mailx commands that operate on messages take a message num-
       ber as an argument like the type command.  For  these  commands,
       there  is  a  notion  of	 a current message.  When you enter the
       mailx program, the current message is initially	the  first  (or
       the  first  recent)  one.   Thus, you can often omit the message
       number and use, for example,

	   t

       to type the current message.  As a further  shorthand,  you  can
       type a message by simply giving its message number.  Hence,

	   1

       would type the first message.

       Frequently, it is useful to read the messages in your mailbox in
       order, one after another.  You can  read	 the  next  message  in
       mailx  by  simply  typing a newline.  As a special case, you can
       type a newline as your first command to mailx to type the  first
       message.

       If,  after  typing  a  message,	you  wish to immediately send a
       reply, you can do so with the reply command.  This command, like
       type,  takes a message number as an argument.  mailx then begins
       a message addressed to the user who sent you the	 message.   You
       may then type in your letter in reply, followed by a <control-d>
       at the beginning of a line, as before.

       Note that mailx copies the subject header from the original mes-
       sage.   This is useful in that correspondence about a particular
       matter will tend to retain the same subject heading,  making  it
       easy to recognize.  If there are other header fields in the mes-
       sage, like 'Cc:', the information found will also be used.

       Sometimes you will receive a message that has been sent to  sev-
       eral  people  and  wish to reply only to the person who sent it.
       Reply with a capital R replies to a message, but sends a copy to
       the sender only.

       If you wish, while reading your mail, to send a message to some-
       one, but not as a reply to one of your messages,	 you  can  send
       the message directly with the mail command, which takes as argu-
       ments the names of the recipients you  wish  to	send  to.   For
       example, to send a message to <frank@machine.example>, you would
       do:

	   mail frank@machine.example

       To delete a message from the mail folder, you can use the delete
       command.	 In addition to not saving deleted messages, mailx will
       not let you type them, either.  The effect is to make  the  mes-
       sage disappear altogether, along with its number.

       Many  features  of mailx can be tailored to your liking with the
       set command.  The  set  command	has  two  forms,  depending  on
       whether	you  are  setting  a  binary option or a valued option.
       Binary options are either on or off.   For  example,  the  askcc
       option informs mailx that each time you send a message, you want
       it to prompt you for a 'Cc:' header, to be included in the  mes-
       sage.  To set the askcc option, you would type

	   set askcc

       Valued  options	are  values  which  mailx uses to adapt to your
       tastes.	For example, the record option	tells  mailx  where  to
       save messages sent by you, and is specified by

	   set record=Sent

       for example.  Note that no spaces are allowed in set record=Sent
       .

       Mailx includes a simple facility for maintaining groups of  mes-
       sages together in folders.  To use the folder facility, you must
       tell mailx where you wish to keep your folders.	Each folder  of
       messages	 will  be  a single file.  For convenience, all of your
       folders are kept in a single directory  of  your	 choosing.   To
       tell  mailx  where  your	 folder directory is, put a line of the
       form

	   set folder=letters

       in your .mailrc file.  If, as in the example above, your	 folder
       directory does not begin with a '/', mailx will assume that your
       folder directory is to be found starting from your  home	 direc-
       tory.

       Anywhere	 a  file  name	is expected, you can use a folder name,
       preceded with '+'.  For example, to put a message into a	 folder
       with the save command, you can use:

	   save +classwork

       to  save	 the  current  message in the classwork folder.	 If the
       classwork folder does not yet exist, it will be	created.   Note
       that messages which are saved with the save command are automat-
       ically removed from your system mailbox.

       In order to make a copy of a message in a folder without causing
       that  message  to  be  removed from your system mailbox, use the
       copy command, which is identical in all other  respects	to  the
       save command.

       The  folder  command can be used to direct mailx to the contents
       of a different folder.  For example,

	   folder +classwork

       directs mailx to read the contents of the classwork folder.  All
       of the commands that you can use on your system mailbox are also
       applicable to folders, including type, delete,  and  reply.   To
       inquire which folder you are currently editing, use simply:

	   folder

       To list your current set of folders, use the folders command.

       Finally, the help command is available to print out a brief sum-
       mary of the most important mailx commands.

       While typing in a message to be sent to others, it is often use-
       ful to be able to invoke the text editor on the partial message,
       print the message, execute a shell command,  or	do  some  other
       auxiliary  function.   Mailx provides these capabilities through
       tilde escapes , which consist of a tilde (~) at the beginning of
       a line, followed by a single character which indicates the func-
       tion to be performed.  For example, to print  the  text	of  the
       message so far, use:

	   ~p

       which  will  print a line of dashes, the recipients of your mes-
       sage, and the text of the message so far.  A list  of  the  most
       important tilde escapes is available with '~?'.

   IMAP or POP3 client setup
       First  you  need the following data from your ISP: the host name
       of the IMAP or POP3 server, user	 name  and  password  for  this
       server, and a notice whether the server uses SSL/TLS encryption.
       Assuming the host name is 'server.myisp.example' and  your  user
       name for that server is 'mylogin', you can refer to this account
       using the folder command or -f command line option with

	   imaps://mylogin@server.myisp.example

       (This string is not necessarily the same as your	 Internet  mail
       address.)   You	can  replace  'imaps://'  with 'imap://' if the
       server does not support SSL/TLS.	 (If SSL/TLS support  is  built
       using NSS, the nss-config-dir variable must be set before a con-
       nection	can  be	 initiated,  see  above).   Use	 'pop3s://'  or
       'pop3://'  if  the  server  does not offer IMAP.	 You should use
       IMAP if you can, though; first because it requires fewer network
       operations  than	 POP3 to get the contents of the mailbox and is
       thus faster; and second because	message	 attributes  are  main-
       tained by the IMAP server, so you can easily distinguish new and
       old messages each time you connect.  Even if the server does not
       accept  IMAPS  or POP3S connections, it is possible that it sup-
       ports the STARTTLS method to make a  session  SSL/TLS  encrypted
       after  the  initial  connection	has  been performed, but before
       authentication begins.  The only reliable method to see if  this
       works is to try it; enter one of

	   set imap-use-starttls
	   set pop3-use-starttls

       before you initiate the connection.

       As  you	probably  want messages to be deleted from this account
       after saving them, prefix it with '%:'.	 The  shortcut	command
       can  be used to avoid typing that many characters every time you
       want to connect:

	   shortcut myisp %:imaps://mylogin@server.myisp.example

       You might want to put this string into a startup file.	As  the
       shortcut command is specific to this implementation of mailx and
       will confuse other implementations, it should  not  be  used  in
       ~/.mailrc, instead, put

	   set NAIL_EXTRA_RC=~/.nailrc

       in ~/.mailrc and create a file ~/.nailrc containing the shortcut
       command above.  You can	then  access  your  remote  mailbox  by
       invoking	 'mailx	 -f myisp' on the command line, or by executing
       'fi myisp' within mailx.

       If you want to use more than one IMAP mailbox on a server, or if
       you  want  to  use  the	IMAP  server  for mail storage too, the
       account command (which is also mailx-specific) is more appropri-
       ate  than  the  shortcut	 command.  You can put the following in
       ~/.nailrc:

	   account myisp {
	       set folder=imaps://mylogin@server.myisp.example
	       set record=+Sent MBOX=+mbox outfolder
	   }

       and can then access incoming mail for this account  by  invoking
       'mailx -A myisp' on the command line, or by executing 'ac myisp'
       within mailx.  After that, a command like 'copy 1  +otherfolder'
       will  refer  to	otherfolder on the IMAP server.	 In particular,
       'fi &' will change to the mbox folder, and 'fi +Sent' will  show
       your  recorded  sent mail, with both folders located on the IMAP
       server.

       Mailx will ask you for a password string each time  you	connect
       to  a  remote account.  If you can reasonably trust the security
       of your workstation, you can give this password in  the	startup
       file as

	   set password-mylogin@server.myisp.example="SECRET"

       You  should  change  the	 permissions  of this file to 0600, see
       chmod(1).

       Mailx supports different authentication methods	for  both  IMAP
       and  POP3.  If Kerberos is used at your location, you can try to
       activate GSSAPI-based authentication by

	   set imap-auth=gssapi

       The advantage of this method is that mailx does not need to know
       your  password at all, nor needs to send sensitive data over the
       network.	 Otherwise, the options

	   set imap-auth=cram-md5
	   set pop3-use-apop

       for IMAP and POP3, respectively,	 offer	authentication	methods
       that  avoid to send the password in clear text over the network,
       which is especially important if SSL/TLS cannot be used.	 If the
       server  does not offer any of these authentication methods, con-
       ventional user/password based authentication must be  used.   It
       is  sometimes helpful to set the verbose option when authentica-
       tion problems occur.  Mailx will display all data  sent	to  the
       server  in  clear text on the screen with this option, including
       passwords.  You should thus take care that no unauthorized  per-
       son can look at your terminal when this option is set.

       If  you	regularly  use	the  same  workstation	to  access IMAP
       accounts, you can greatly enhance performance by enabling  local
       caching	of  IMAP messages.  For any message that has been fully
       or partially fetched from the server, a local copy is  made  and
       is  used	 when  the  message  is accessed again, so most data is
       transferred over the network once  only.	  To  enable  the  IMAP
       cache, select a local directory name and put

	   set imap-cache=~/localdirectory

       in  the	startup	 file.	 All files within that directory can be
       overwritten or deleted by mailx at any time, so you  should  not
       use the directory to store other information.

       Once the cache contains some messages, it is not strictly neces-
       sary anymore to open a connection to the IMAP server  to	 access
       them.   When  mailx  is	invoked with the -D option, or when the
       disconnected variable is set, only cached data is used  for  any
       folder  you  open.   Messages  that have not yet been completely
       cached are not available then, but all  other  messages	can  be
       handled	as  usual.   Changes  made to IMAP mailboxes in discon-
       nected mode are committed to the IMAP server  next  time	 it  is
       used  in	 online	 mode.	Synchronizing the local status with the
       status on the server is thus partially within your  responsibil-
       ity;  if you forget to initiate a connection to the server again
       before you leave your location, changes made on one  workstation
       are  not	 available on others.  Also if you alter IMAP mailboxes
       from a workstation while uncommitted changes are	 still	pending
       on  another, the latter data may become invalid.	 The same might
       also happen because of  internal	 server	 status	 changes.   You
       should  thus carefully evaluate this feature in your environment
       before you rely on it.

       Many servers will close the connection after a short  period  of
       inactivity. Use one of

	   set pop3-keepalive=30
	   set imap-keepalive=240

       to  send a keepalive message each 30 seconds for POP3, or each 4
       minutes for IMAP.

       If you encounter problems connecting to a  SSL/TLS  server,  try
       the  ssl-rand-egd  and  ssl-rand-file variables (see the OpenSSL
       FAQ for more information) or specify the protocol  version  with
       ssl-method.   Contact  your ISP if you need a client certificate
       or if verification of the  server  certificate  fails.	If  the
       failed  certificate is indeed valid, fetch its CA certificate by
       executing the shell command

	   $ openssl s_client </dev/null -showcerts -connect \
		  server.myisp.example:imaps 2>&1 | tee log

       (see s_client(1)) and put it into the file specified  with  ssl-
       ca-file.	  The  data  you need is located at the end of the cer-
       tificate chain within (and including)  the  'BEGIN  CERTIFICATE'
       and 'END CERTIFICATE' lines.  (Note that it is possible to fetch
       a forged certificate by this method.  You  can  only  completely
       rely  on	 the authenticity of the CA certificate if you fetch it
       in a way that is trusted by other means, such as	 by  personally
       receiving the certificate on storage media.)

   Creating a score file or message filter
       The scoring commands are best separated from other configuration
       for clarity, and are mostly mailx specific.  It is  thus	 recom-
       mended  to put them in a separate file that is sourced from your
       NAIL_EXTRA_RC as follows:

	   source ~/.scores

       The .scores file could then look as follows:

	   define list {
	       score (subject "important discussion") +10
	       score (subject "annoying discussion") -10
	       score (from "nicefellow@goodnet") +15
	       score (from "badguy@poornet") -5
	       move (header x-spam-flag "+++++") +junk
	   }
	   set folder-hook-imap://user@host/public.list=list

       In this scheme, you would see any  mail	from  'nicefellow@good-
       net',  even  if	the surrounding discussion is annoying; but you
       normally would not see mail  from  'badguy@poornet',  unless  he
       participates  in	 the  important	 discussion.  Messages that are
       marked with five or more plus characters in their  'X-Spam-Flag'
       field  (inserted	 by  some  server-side	filtering software) are
       moved to the folder 'junk' in the folder directory.

       Be aware that all criteria in () lead to substring  matches,  so
       you would also score messages from e.g. 'notsobadguy@poornetmak-
       ers' negative here.  It is possible to select addresses	exactly
       using "address" message specifications, but these cannot be exe-
       cuted remotely and will thus cause all headers to be  downloaded
       from IMAP servers while looking for matches.

       When  searching	messages on an IMAP server, best performance is
       usually achieved by sending as many criteria as possible in  one
       large  ()  specification, because each single such specification
       will result in a separate network operation.

   Activating the Bayesian filter
       The Bayesian junk mail filter works by examining the words  con-
       tained  in messages.  You decide yourself what a good and what a
       bad message is.	Thus the resulting filter is your very personal
       one;  once  it is correctly set up, it will filter only messages
       similar to those previously specified by you.

       To use the  Bayesian  filter,  a	 location  for	the  junk  mail
       database must be defined first:

	   set junkdb=~/.junkdb

       The  junk  mail database does not contain actual words extracted
       from messages, but hashed representations of  them.   A	foreign
       person  who  can	 read  the database could only examine the fre-
       quency of previously known words in your mail.

       If you have sufficient disk space (several 10 MB) available,  it
       is recommended that you set the chained-junk-tokens option.  The
       filter will then also consider two-word	tokens,	 improving  its
       accuracy.

       A  set of good messages and junk messages must now be available;
       it is also possible to use the incoming new  messages  for  this
       purpose,	 although  it  will  of course take some time until the
       filter becomes useful then.  Do not underestimate the amount  of
       statistical  data  needed;  some	 hundred messages are typically
       necessary to get satisfactory results, and  many	 thousand  mes-
       sages for best operation.  You have to pass the good messages to
       the good command, and the junk messages to the junk command.  If
       you ever accidentally mark a good message as junk or vice-versa,
       call the ungood or unjunk command to correct this.

       Once a reasonable amount of statistics has been	collected,  new
       messages	 can be classified automatically.  The classify command
       marks all messages that the filter considers to be junk, but  it
       does  not  perform  any action on them by default.  It is recom-
       mended that you move these messages into a separate folder  just
       for  the case that false positives occur, or to pass them to the
       junk command later  again  to  further  improve	the  junk  mail
       database.   To  automatically  move incoming junk messages every
       time the inbox is opened, put lines like the following into your
       .scores	file (or whatever name you gave to the file in the last
       example):

	   define junkfilter {
	       classify (smaller 20000) :n
	       move :j +junk
	   }
	   set folder-hook-imap://user@host/INBOX=junkfilter

       If you set the verbose option before running the	 classify  com-
       mand,  mailx  prints  the words it uses for calculating the junk
       status along with their	statistical  probabilities.   This  can
       help you to find out why some messages are not classified as you
       would like them to be.  To see the statistical probability of  a
       given word, use the probability command.

       If  a junk message was not recognized as such, use the junk com-
       mand to correct this.  Also if you encounter a false positive (a
       good  message  that  was wrongly classified as junk), pass it to
       the good command.

       Since the classify command must examine the entire text	of  all
       new  messages in the respective folder, this will also cause all
       of them to be downloaded from the IMAP server.  You should  thus
       restrict	 the  size  of	messages  for  automatic filtering.  If
       server-based filtering is also available, you might try if  that
       works for you first.

   Reading HTML mail
       You  need either the w3m or lynx utility or another command-line
       web browser that can write plain text to standard output.

	   set pipe-text/html="w3m -dump -T text/html"

       or

	   set pipe-text/html="lynx -dump -force_html /dev/stdin"

       will then cause HTML message parts to be converted into	a  more
       friendly form.

   Viewing PDF attachments
       Most  PDF  viewers do not accept input directly from a pipe.  It
       is thus necessary to store the attachment in a  temporary  file,
       as with

	   set pipe-application/pdf="cat >/tmp/mailx$$.pdf; \
		  acroread /tmp/mailx$$.pdf; rm /tmp/mailx$$.pdf"

       Note  that  security  defects are discovered in PDF viewers from
       time to time.  Automatical command execution like this can  com-
       promise	your  system  security,	 in  particular if you stay not
       always informed about such issues.

   Signed and encrypted messages with S/MIME
       S/MIME provides two central mechanisms: message signing and mes-
       sage  encryption.   A signed message contains some data in addi-
       tion to the regular text.  The data can be used to  verify  that
       the  message  was  sent	using  a  valid	 certificate,  that the
       sender's address in the message header matches that in the  cer-
       tificate, and that the message text has not been altered.  Sign-
       ing a message does not change its regular text; it can  be  read
       regardless of whether the recipient's software is able to handle
       S/MIME.	It is thus usually possible to sign all	 outgoing  mes-
       sages  if so desired.--Encryption, in contrast, makes the message
       text invisible for all people except those who  have  access  to
       the  secret  decryption key.  To encrypt a message, the specific
       recipient's public encryption key must be known.	 It is thus not
       possible	 to  send encrypted mail to people unless their key has
       been retrieved from either previous communication or public  key
       directories.   A	 message  should  always be signed before it is
       encrypted.  Otherwise, it is still possible that	 the  encrypted
       message text is altered.

       A central concept to S/MIME is that of the certification author-
       ity (CA).  A CA is a trusted institution	 that  issues  certifi-
       cates.	For each of these certificates, it can be verified that
       it really originates from the CA, provided  that	 the  CA's  own
       certificate  is	previously  known.  A set of CA certificates is
       usually delivered with OpenSSL and installed on your system.  If
       you trust the source of your OpenSSL software installation, this
       offers reasonable security for S/MIME on the Internet.  In  gen-
       eral, a certificate cannot be more secure than the method its CA
       certificate has been retrieved with, though.  Thus if you  down-
       load  a CA certificate from the Internet, you can only trust the
       messages you verify using that certificate as much as you  trust
       the download process.

       The  first  thing  you  need for participating in S/MIME message
       exchange is your personal certificate, including a private  key.
       The  certificate contains public information, in particular your
       name and your email address, and the public key that is used  by
       others  to  encrypt  messages for you, and to verify signed mes-
       sages they supposedly received from  you.   The	certificate  is
       included	 in each signed message you send.  The private key must
       be kept secret.	It is used to decrypt messages that were previ-
       ously encrypted with your public key, and to sign messages.

       For  personal  use, it is recommended that you get a S/MIME cer-
       tificate from one of the major CAs on the  Internet  using  your
       WWW  browser.  (Many CAs offer such certificates for free.)  You
       will usually receive a combined certificate and private	key  in
       PKCS#12	format	which  mailx does not directly accept if S/MIME
       support is built using OpenSSL.	To convert it  to  PEM	format,
       use the following shell command:

	   $ openssl pkcs12 -in cert.p12 -out cert.pem -clcerts \
	       -nodes

       If you omit the -nodes parameter, you can specifiy an additional
       PEM pass phrase for protecting the private key.	Mailx will then
       ask  you	 for  that pass phrase each time it signs or decrypts a
       message.	 You can then use

	   set smime-sign-cert-myname@myisp.example=cert.pem

       to make this private key and certificate known to mailx.

       If S/MIME support is built using NSS, the PKCS#12 file  must  be
       installed  using	 Mozilla  (provided  that nss-config-dir is set
       appropriately, see above), and no further  action  is  necessary
       unless multiple user certificates for the same email address are
       installed.  In this case, the smime-sign-nickname  variable  has
       to be set appropriately.

       You can now sign outgoing messages.  Just use

	   set smime-sign

       to do so.

       From  each signed message you send, the recipient can fetch your
       certificate and use it to  send	encrypted  mail	 back  to  you.
       Accordingly  if	somebody sends you a signed message, you can do
       the same.  First use the verify command to check the validity of
       the  certificate.  After that, retrieve the certificate and tell
       mailx that it should use it for encryption:

	   certsave filename
	   set smime-encrypt-user@host=filename

       If S/MIME support is built using NSS, the saved certificate must
       be  installed  using  Mozilla.	The value of the smime-encrypt-
       user@host is ignored then, but if multiple certificates for  the
       recipient  are  available, the smime-nickname-user@host variable
       must be set.

       You should carefully consider if you prefer to  store  encrypted
       messages	 in  decrypted form.  If you do, anybody who has access
       to your mail folders can read them, but if you do not, you might
       be unable to read them yourself later if you happen to lose your
       private key.  The decrypt command saves	messages  in  decrypted
       form,  while  the  save,	 copy,	and  move  commands  leave them
       encrypted.

       Note that neither  S/MIME  signing  nor	encryption  applies  to
       message subjects or other header fields.	 Thus they may not con-
       tain sensitive information for encrypted messages, and cannot be
       trusted	even  if  the  message content has been verified.  When
       sending signed messages, it is recommended to repeat any	 impor-
       tant header information in the message text.

   Using CRLs with S/MIME or SSL/TLS
       Certification  authorities  (CAs)  issue	 certificate revocation
       lists (CRLs) on a regular basis.	 These lists contain the serial
       numbers	of  certificates  that have been declared invalid after
       they have been issued.  Such usually happens because the private
       key  for the certificate has been compromised, because the owner
       of the certificate has left the organization that  is  mentioned
       in  the	certificate,  etc.   To seriously use S/MIME or SSL/TLS
       verification, an up-to-date CRL is required for each trusted CA.
       There  is  otherwise  no method to distinguish between valid and
       invalidated certificates.  Mailx currently offers  no  mechanism
       to fetch CRLs, or to access them on the Internet, so you have to
       retrieve them by some external mechanism.

       If S/MIME and SSL/TLS support are  built	 using	OpenSSL,  mailx
       accepts CRLs in PEM format only; CRLs in DER format must be con-
       verted, e.g. with the shell command

	   $ openssl crl -inform DER -in crl.der -out crl.pem

       To tell mailx about the CRLs, a directory that contains all  CRL
       files  (and  no other files) must be created.  The smime-crl-dir
       or ssl-crl-dir variables, respectively,	must  then  be	set  to
       point to that directory.	 After that, mailx requires a CRL to be
       present for each CA that is used to verify a certificate.

       If S/MIME and SSL/TLS support are built using NSS, CRLs	can  be
       imported	 in  Mozilla applications (provided that nss-config-dir
       is set appropriately).

   Sending mail from scripts
       If you want to send mail from scripts, you must	be  aware  that
       mailx  reads  the  user's  configuration	 files	by default.  So
       unless your script is only intended for your  own  personal  use
       (as  e.g.  a  cron job), you need to circumvent this by invoking
       mailx like

	   MAILRC=/dev/null mailx -n

       You then need to create	a  configuration  for  mailx  for  your
       script.	This can be done by either pointing the MAILRC variable
       to a custom configuration file, or by passing the  configuration
       in  environment	variables.   Since  many  of  the configuration
       options are not valid shell variables, the env command is useful
       in this situation.  An invocation could thus look like

	   env MAILRC=/dev/null from=scriptreply@domain smtp=host \
		 smtp-auth-user=login smtp-auth-password=secret \
		 smtp-auth=login mailx -n -s "subject" \
		 -a attachment_file recipient@domain <content_file

SEE ALSO
       fmt(1),	newaliases(1), openssl(1), pg(1), more(1), vacation(1),
       ssl(3), aliases(5), locale(7), mailaddr(7), sendmail(8)

NOTES
       Variables in the environment passed to mailx cannot be unset.

       The character set conversion relies on  the  iconv(3)  function.
       Its  functionality  differs  widely  between  the various system
       environments mailx runs on.  If the message 'Cannot convert from
       a  to  b'  appears,  either  some  characters within the message
       header or text are not appropriate for  the  currently  selected
       terminal	 character  set,  or  the needed conversion is not sup-
       ported by the system.  In the first case, it is necessary to set
       an  appropriate	LC_CTYPE  locale (e.g. en_US) or the ttycharset
       variable.  In the second case, the sendcharsets	and  ttycharset
       variables must be set to the same value to inhibit character set
       conversion.  If iconv() is  not	available  at  all,  the  value
       assigned	 to  sendcharsets  must match the character set that is
       used on the terminal.

       Mailx expects input text	 to  be	 in  Unix  format,  with  lines
       separated  by  newline  (^J, \n) characters only.  Non-Unix text
       files that use carriage return (^M, \r) characters  in  addition
       will  be	 treated  as  binary  data; to send such files as text,
       strip these characters e. g. by

	      tr -d '\015' <input | mailx . . .

       or fix the tools that generate them.

       Limitations with IMAP mailboxes are: It is not possible to  edit
       messages,  but  it  is  possible to append them.	 Thus to edit a
       message, create a local copy of it,  edit  it,  append  it,  and
       delete  the  original.  The line count for the header display is
       only appropriate if the entire message has been downloaded  from
       the  server.   The  marking of messages as 'new' is performed by
       the IMAP server; use of the exit command instead	 of  quit  will
       not  cause  it to be reset, and if the autoinc/newmail variables
       are unset, messages that arrived during a session will not be in
       state  'new'  anymore  when the folder is opened again.	Also if
       commands queued in disconnected mode  are  committed,  the  IMAP
       server  will  delete  the  'new'	 flag  for  all messages in the
       changed folder, and new messages will appear as unread  when  it
       is  selected  for viewing later.	 The 'flagged', 'answered', and
       'draft' attributes are usually permanent, but some IMAP	servers
       are  known  to  drop them without notification.	Message numbers
       may change with IMAP every time before the prompt is printed  if
       mailx  is notified by the server that messages have been deleted
       by some other client or process.	 In this case, 'Expunged n mes-
       sages' is printed, and message numbers may have changed.

       Limitations  with POP3 mailboxes are: It is not possible to edit
       messages, they can only be copied and deleted.  The  line  count
       for the header display is only appropriate if the entire message
       has been downloaded from the server.  The status field of a mes-
       sage  is	 maintained  by	 the  server  between connections; some
       servers do not update it at all, and with a  server  that  does,
       the  'exit'  command  will  not	cause  the message status to be
       reset.  The 'newmail' command and the 'newmail' variable have no
       effect.	 It  is	 not possible to rename or to remove POP3 mail-
       boxes.

       If a RUBOUT (interrupt) is typed while an IMAP or POP3 operation
       is  in  progress,  mailx	 will  wait  until the operation can be
       safely aborted, and will then return to	the  command  loop  and
       print  the  prompt  again.   When a second RUBOUT is typed while
       mailx is waiting for the operation to  complete,	 the  operation
       itself  will  be canceled.  In this case, data that has not been
       fetched yet will have to be fetched before the next command  can
       be  performed.	If  the canceled operation was using an SSL/TLS
       encrypted channel, an error  in	the  SSL  transport  will  very
       likely result, and the connection is no longer usable.

       As  mailx is a mail user agent, it provides only basic SMTP ser-
       vices.  If it fails to contact its upstream SMTP server, it will
       not  make  further  attempts  to transfer the message at a later
       time, and it does not leave other information about this	 condi-
       tion  than  an error message on the terminal and a 'dead.letter'
       file.  This is usually not a  problem  if  the  SMTP  server  is
       located in the same local network as the computer on which mailx
       is run.	However, care should  be  taken	 when  using  a	 remote
       server  of  an  ISP;  it	 might be better to set up a local SMTP
       server then which just acts as a proxy.

       Mailx	immediately    contacts	   the	  SMTP	  server    (or
       /usr/lib/sendmail) even when operating in disconnected mode.  It
       would not make much sense for mailx to defer outgoing mail since
       SMTP servers usually provide much more elaborated delay handling
       than mailx could perform as  a  client.	 Thus  the  recommended
       setup  for  sending  mail in disconnected mode is to configure a
       local SMTP server such that it sends outgoing mail as soon as an
       external	 network  connection is available again, i.e. to advise
       it to do that from a network startup script.

       The junk mail filter follows the concepts developed by Paul Gra-
       ham   in	 his  articles,	 ''A  Plan  for	 Spam'',  August  2002,
       <http://www.paulgraham.com/spam.html>,  and  ''Better   Bayesian
       Filtering'',		       January			  2003,
       <http://www.paulgraham.com/better.html>.	 Chained tokens are due
       to  a  paper  by	 Jonathan  A.  Zdziarski,  ''Advanced  Language
       Classification	using	Chained	  Tokens'',   February	  2004,
       <http://www.nuclearelephant.com/papers/chained.html>.

       A  mail	command appeared in Version 1 AT&T Unix.  Berkeley Mail
       was written in 1978 by Kurt Shoens.  This man  page  is	derived
       from  from  The Mail Reference Manual originally written by Kurt
       Shoens.	Heirloom Mailx enhancements are	 maintained  and  docu-
       mented by Gunnar Ritter.

       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic
       form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard  for  Informa-
       tion  Technology	 -- Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open
       Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by  the
       Institute  of  Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The
       Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version
       and  the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original
       IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the	referee	 document.  The
       original	    Standard	 can	 be    obtained	   online    at
       http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .   Redistribution  of
       this  material  is  permitted  so  long	as  this notice remains
       intact.

Heirloom mailx 12.4		    10/1/07			      MAILX(1)							
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