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Unix Manual [tail]

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UNIX Manual | Commands
							TAIL(1)				 User Commands			       TAIL(1)

       tail - output the last part of files

       tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...

       Print  the  last	 10  lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more
       than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file  name.	  With
       no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

       Mandatory  arguments  to	 long  options are mandatory for short options

       -c, --bytes=K
	      output the last K bytes; alternatively,  use  -c	+K  to	output
	      bytes starting with the Kth of each file

       -f, --follow[={name|descriptor}]
	      output appended data as the file grows; -f, --follow, and --fol-
	      low=descriptor are equivalent

       -F     same as --follow=name --retry

       -n, --lines=K
	      output the last K lines, instead of the last 10; or use -n +K to
	      output lines starting with the Kth

	      with  --follow=name,  reopen  a  FILE which has not changed size
	      after N (default 5) iterations to see if it has been unlinked or
	      renamed  (this  is  the  usual case of rotated log files).  With
	      inotify, this option is rarely useful.

	      with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies

       -q, --quiet, --silent
	      never output headers giving file names

	      keep trying to open a file even when it is or becomes inaccessi-
	      ble; useful when following by name, i.e., with --follow=name

       -s, --sleep-interval=N
	      with -f, sleep for approximately N seconds (default 1.0) between

	      With inotify and --pid=P, check process P at least once every  N

       -v, --verbose
	      always output headers giving file names

       --help display this help and exit

	      output version information and exit

       If  the	first  character of K (the number of bytes or lines) is a '+',
       print beginning with the Kth item from the start of each	 file,	other-
       wise,  print  the  last	K  items in the file.  K may have a multiplier
       suffix: b  512,	kB  1000,  K  1024,  MB	 1000*1000,  M	1024*1024,  GB
       1000*1000*1000, G 1024*1024*1024, and so on for T, P, E, Z, Y.

       With  --follow  (-f),  tail  defaults to following the file descriptor,
       which means that even if a tail'ed file is renamed, tail will  continue
       to  track  its  end.   This  default behavior is not desirable when you
       really want to track the actual name of the file, not the file descrip-
       tor (e.g., log rotation).  Use --follow=name in that case.  That causes
       tail to track the named file  in	 a  way	 that  accommodates  renaming,
       removal and creation.

       Written	by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, Ian Lance Taylor, and Jim Mey-

       Report tail bugs to
       GNU coreutils home page: <>
       General help using GNU software: <>
       Report tail translation bugs to <>

       Copyright (C) 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.   License  GPLv3+:  GNU
       GPL version 3 or later <>.
       This  is	 free  software:  you  are free to change and redistribute it.
       There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

       The full documentation for tail is maintained as a Texinfo manual.   If
       the  info  and  tail  programs are properly installed at your site, the

	      info coreutils 'tail invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.

GNU coreutils 8.4		   June 2018			       TAIL(1)							
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